Comparing "bu" and "mei"
Both 不 (bù) and 没 (méi) can be placed in front of a verb or adjective to negate its meaning. However, 不 (bù) and 没 (méi) are not usually interchangeable, so it's important to learn when you must use 不 (bù) as opposed to 没 (méi), and vice versa.
- 1 不 is for negating in the present and future
- 2 不 is used to negate habitual actions
- 3 不 is normally used with adjectives
- 4 不 is used to ask questions
- 5 没 is used to negate past actions
- 6 Only 没 is used to negate 有
- 7 没 is used to make comparisons
- 8 不 is used almost exclusively with some verbs
- 9 Sources and further reading
不 is for negating in the present and future
不 (bù) is generally used to negate an action that you do not want to do or do not intend to do (in the future). So expressing things like "I don't want to go" or "I'm not going" would be uses of 不 (bù).
Subj. + 不 + Verb
Whether it's "don't wanna do it" or "not gonna do it," use 不 (bù):
- 我 今天 晚上 不 喝酒。Tonight I'm not going to drink.
- 爸爸 不 回来 吃 晚饭。Dad is not coming back to eat dinner.
- 老板 明天 不 来 公司。The boss won't come to work tomorrow.
- 我 知道 这 个 周末 不 下雨。I know it's not going to rain this weekend.
- 你女朋友 不 跟 你 一起 去 吗？Is your girlfriend not going together with you?
不 is used to negate habitual actions
不 (bù) can be used to negate habitual actions, to express what you just aren't in the habit of doing, such as eating meat, or watching TV, or drinking alcohol. This is simply done by placing 不 (bù) in front of the verb.
Subj. + 不 + Verb + Obj.
- 我 不 吃 肉。I don't eat meat.
- 你们 都 不 喝酒 吗？Do you all not drink alcohol?
- 他 不 喜欢 说话。He doesn't like to speak.
- 你 不 用 手机 看书 吗？Do you not use your phone to read books?
- 这 个 国家 的 人 吃饭 以前 不 洗手 吗？Do the people in this country not wash their hands before they eat food?
Please note that, while it is grammatically correct to use 没 (méi) in all the sentences above, 没 (méi) does not negate any habitual actions. The sentences above, if they contained 没 (méi) instead of 不 (bù), would express that the speaker didn't do the named activity (at one particular point in the past). So it would not be about habitual actions.
不 is normally used with adjectives
When it comes to a simple negation of an adjective (such as "not cold"), use 不 (bù).
不 + Adj.
- 我们 不 饿。We're not hungry.
- 你 不 胖。You are not fat.
- 今天 不 冷。Today it isn't cold.
- 我 觉得 Starbucks 的 咖啡 不 贵。I think the coffee at Starbucks isn't expensive.
- 我家 离 公司 不 远。My house is not far away from the office.
不 is used to ask questions
There are couple ways to use 不 (bù) to ask questions. One such way is through affirmative-negative questions. This is done by stating a verb and then immediately repeating that verb in a negative state (with 不 (bù)):
Subj. + Verb + 不 + Verb + Obj.
- 你 是 不 是 我的 老师？Are you my teacher or not?
- 她 想 不 想 来？Does she want to come? (Literally: Does she want-not want to come?)
- 你 爱 不 爱 我？Do you love me or not?
- 你们 周末 上 不 上 班？Do you all go to work on weekends?
- 你的 老外朋友们 喜 不 喜欢 吃 中国菜？Do your foreign friends like to eat Chinese food or not? (Literally: Do your foreign friends like-not like Chinese food?)
不 (bù) can also be used to form tag questions. Tag questions use the positive-negative question form, but are placed at the end of the sentence. Tag questions are used to seek approval or acceptance for a statement, very similar to the English "OK?" or "right?" You can't use 没 (mèi) for this.
- 我们 去 吃饭，好 不 好？Let's go eat, is that OK?
- 你们 是 好 朋友，对 不 对？You are good friends, right?
- 我们 喝 咖啡，好 没 好？Let's drink coffee, OK does not have OK?
- 你 应该 去 上 课，对 没 对？You should go to class, right not have right?
没 is used to negate past actions
没 (méi) and 没有 (méiyǒu) can both be used to negate actions that occurred in the past, or to say that something has not happened yet.
Subj. + 没(有) + Verb + Obj.
- 他 没有 打 电话 给 我。He did not give me a call.
- 你 没 去 上班 吗？Did you not go to work?
- 我 昨天 没 喝 酒。I did not drink wine yesterday.
- 妈妈 没有 做 晚饭。Mom did not cook dinner.
- 他们 吃 完 饭 以后 没 付钱。They didn't pay after they finished eating food.
- 我 昨天 不 喝 酒。I not drink wine yesterday.
- 你 昨晚 不 回 家 吗？Did you not come home last night?
- 我 上个 周末 不 跟 他 见面。I didn't see him last weekend.
- 上周 我们 不 开会。We didn't have a meeting last week.
- 上个月 你 不 去 北京 吗？ Did you not go to Beijing last month?
There are a few things worth noting in these examples. For one, it is still grammatically correct to leave out the 有 (méiyǒu) in the sentences using 没有 (méiyǒu). Also, the sentence using 不 (bù) would be grammatically correct, if not for the 昨天 (zuótiān) ("yesterday") telling us that it is definitely the past we're talking about. That incorrect sentence using 不 (bù) would translate into: "I don't drink wine yesterday" as opposed to "I didn't drink wine yesterday."
Only 没 is used to negate 有
没 (méi) can be used to negate the verb 有 (yǒu) ("to have") to mean "do not have." You can only use 没 (méi) to convey this meaning. It is grammatically incorrect to use 不 (bù) to negate 有 (yǒu).
Subject + 没有 + Object
- 我 没有 钱。I don't have money.
- 我 不 有 钱。I not have money.
- 他 没有 女朋友。He doesn't have a girlfriend.
- 他 不 有 女朋友。He not have girlfriend.
- 我 妈妈 没有 iPhone。My mom doesn't have an iPhone.
- 我 妈妈 不 有 iPhone。 My mom doesn't have an iPhone.
- 他 爸爸 没有 工作。His dad doesn't have a job.
- 他 爸爸 不 有 工作。 His dad doesn't have a job.
- 他们 没有 孩子。They don't have children.
- 他们 不 有 孩子。 They don't have children.
There are times when you can leave out 有 (yǒu) entirely while still expressing 没有 (méiyǒu) (meaning "to not have" or "there is no"). One well-known example of this is 没办法 (méi bànfǎ) ("there is no way" [that's gonna happen]). Both 没 (méi) and 没有 (méiyǒu) are correct, however.
- 我 没 办法。I don't have a way.
- 我 没有 办法。I don't have a way.
(You can also use 没办法 (méi bànfǎ) to express other meanings.)
没 is used to make comparisons
没 (méi) or 没有 (méiyǒu) can be used to make simple comparisons meaning "not as... as...":
Noun 1 + 没有 + Noun 2 + Adj.
- 你 没有 我 高。You are not as tall as me. (Literally: You do not have me tall.)
- 你 不 有 我 高。You are not as tall as me.
- 我 的 手机 没有 他 的 手机 贵。My cellphone isn't as expensive as his. (Literally: "My cellphone does not have his cellphone expensive.")
- 我 的 手机 不 有 他 的 手机 贵。 My cellphone isn't as expensive as his.
- 我们 都 没有 老板 忙。We all are not as busy as the boss. (Literally: We all don't have the boss busy.)
- 我们 都 不 有 老板 忙。 None of us are as busy as the boss.
- 上海 的 冬天 没有 北京 的 冬天 冷。Winter in Shanghai is not as cold as in Beijing. (Literally: Winter in Shanghai doesn't have winter in Beijing cold.)
- 上海 的 冬天 不 有 北京 的 冬天 冷。 Winter in Shanghai is not as cold as winter in Beijing.
You can only use 没 (méi) or 没有 (méiyǒu) for this purpose, and not 不 (bù).
不 is used almost exclusively with some verbs
Certain verbs just don't get negated by 没 (méi) or 没有 (méiyǒu) ever. These include the verbs 是 (shì) ("to be") and 在 (zài) ("to be (in a place)"), as well as some psychological verbs such as 知道 (zhīdào) ("to know") and 认识 (rènshi) ("to know (a person)"). For these verbs, it's best to just take them on a case-by-case basis. Being aware of their existence can save you a fair bit of confusion.
- 他 以前 不 是 我的 老板。He was not my boss before.
- 他 以前 没 是 我的 老板。He did not is my boss before.
- 我 不 知道 他 要 来。 I didn't know he was coming.
- 我 没 知道 他 要来。 I did not have know he was coming.
- 他 小时候 不 认识 她。He did not know her when he was young.
- 他 小时候 没 认识 她。He not have know her when he was young.
- 昨天 我 不 在 家。I was not home yesterday.
- 昨天 我 没 在 家。(Use of 没 with 在 is technically incorrect, but you sometimes hear it.)I did not at home yesterday.
Note that in non-standard Mandarin you might encounter exceptions to this rule. It's still useful to know the rule!
Sources and further reading
- ChinesePod Qing Wen: When To Use “不” bù and “没” méi?
- Chinese: An Essential Grammar, Second Edition (pp. 141-4) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 1 (3rd ed) (pp. 137-9) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 1 (新实用汉语课本1) (p. 87) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 1 (新实用汉语课本1)(2nd ed) (pp. 102, 250-1) →buy
- Chinese: An Essential Grammar, Second Edition (pp. 54-5) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 3 (新实用汉语课本3) (pp. 33-4) →buy
- Chinese: An Essential Grammar, Second Edition (p. 51) →buy
- 现代汉语八百词（增订本） (p. 382) →buy
- Practicing HSK Grammar (语法精讲精炼) (p. 32) →buy
- 现代汉语八百词（增订本） (p. 383) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 1 (3rd ed) (p. 31) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 2 (1st ed) (pp. 85-86) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 1 (新实用汉语课本1)(2nd ed) (p. 218) →buy
- Reference:Chinese Grammar - Broken down into 100 items - Basic and Intermediate Levels (汉语语法百项讲练 - 初中级)(不 没p.156)→buy
- 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） (p. 157-8)→buy