Jump to: navigation, search

IPA

IPA stands for International Phonetic Alphabet. It is a tool used by linguists to more accurately describe the sounds of languages. IPA can be very useful when comparing the sounds of different languages, but it is not often appreciated by non-linguists, so don't feel bad if you're not a fan. It's not necessary to learn IPA in order to master Chinese pronunciation.

The IPA transcriptions below use some uncommon symbols that may not display correctly in some browsers.

Initials

  1. [f]
  2. [k]
  3. [kʰ]
  4. [l]
  5. [m]
  6. [n]
  7. [p]
  8. [pʰ]
  9. [s]
  10. [t]
  11. [ts]
  12. [tsʰ]
  13. [tɕ]
  14. [tɕʰ]
  15. [tʂ]
  16. [tʂʰ]
  17. [tʰ]
  18. [x]
  19. [ɕ]
  20. [ʂ]
  21. [ʐ]


Finals

  1. [an]
  2. [aɪ̯]
  3. [eɪ̯]
  4. [i]
  5. [in]
  6. [iŋ]
  7. [iɛ]
  8. [iɛn]
  9. [i̯ɑ]
  10. [i̯ɑŋ]
  11. [i̯ɑʊ̯]
  12. [i̯ɤʊ̯]
  13. [i̯ʊŋ]
  14. [u]
  15. [u̯an]
  16. [u̯aɪ̯]
  17. [u̯eɪ̯]
  18. [u̯ɑ]
  19. [u̯ɑŋ]
  20. [u̯ɔ]
  21. [u̯ɔ]
  22. [u̯ən]
  23. [u̯əŋ]
  24. [y]
  25. [yn]
  26. [y̯œ]
  27. [y̯ɛn]
  28. [ɑ]
  29. [ɑŋ]
  30. [ɑɻ]
  31. [ɑʊ̯]
  32. [ən]
  33. [əŋ]
  34. [ɤʊ̯]
  35. [ɯ̯ʌ]
  36. [ʊŋ]


Syllables

  1. [an]
  2. [aɪ̯]
  3. [eɪ̯]
  4. [fan]
  5. [feɪ̯]
  6. [fu]
  7. [fu̯ɔ]
  8. [fɑ]
  9. [fɑŋ]
  10. [fən]
  11. [fəŋ]
  12. [fɤʊ̯]
  13. [i]
  14. [in]
  15. [iŋ]
  16. [iɛ]
  17. [iɛn]
  18. [i̯ɑ]
  19. [i̯ɑŋ]
  20. [i̯ɑʊ̯]
  21. [i̯ɤʊ̯]
  22. [kan]
  23. [kaɪ̯]
  24. [keɪ̯]
  25. [ku]
  26. [ku̯an]
  27. [ku̯aɪ̯]
  28. [ku̯eɪ̯]
  29. [ku̯ɑ]
  30. [ku̯ɑŋ]
  31. [ku̯ɔ]
  32. [ku̯ən]
  33. [kɑ]
  34. [kɑŋ]
  35. [kɑʊ̯]
  36. [kən]
  37. [kəŋ]
  38. [kɤʊ̯]
  39. [kɯ̯ʌ]
  40. [kʊŋ]
  41. [kʰan]
  42. [kʰaɪ̯]
  43. [kʰeɪ̯]
  44. [kʰu]
  45. [kʰu̯an]
  46. [kʰu̯aɪ̯]
  47. [kʰu̯eɪ̯]
  48. [kʰu̯ɑ]
  49. [kʰu̯ɑŋ]
  50. [kʰu̯ɔ]
  51. [kʰu̯ən]
  52. [kʰɑ]
  53. [kʰɑŋ]
  54. [kʰɑʊ̯]
  55. [kʰən]
  56. [kʰəŋ]
  57. [kʰɤʊ̯]
  58. [kʰɯ̯ʌ]
  59. [kʰʊŋ]
  60. [lan]
  61. [laɪ̯]
  62. [leɪ̯]
  63. [li]
  64. [lin]
  65. [liŋ]
  66. [liɛ]
  67. [liɛn]
  68. [li̯ɑ]
  69. [li̯ɑŋ]
  70. [li̯ɑʊ̯]
  71. [li̯ɤʊ̯]
  72. [lu]
  73. [lu̯an]
  74. [lu̯ɔ]
  75. [lu̯ɔ]
  76. [lu̯ən]
  77. [ly]
  78. [ly̯œ]
  79. [lɑ]
  80. [lɑŋ]
  81. [lɑʊ̯]
  82. [ləŋ]
  83. [lɤʊ̯]
  84. [lɯ̯ʌ]
  85. [lʊŋ]
  86. [man]
  87. [maɪ̯]
  88. [meɪ̯]
  89. [mi]
  90. [min]
  91. [miŋ]
  92. [miɛ]
  93. [miɛn]
  94. [mi̯ɑʊ̯]
  95. [mi̯ɤʊ̯]
  96. [mu]
  97. [mu̯ɔ]
  98. [mɑ]
  99. [mɑŋ]
  100. [mɑʊ̯]
  101. [mən]
  102. [məŋ]
  103. [mɤʊ̯]
  104. [mɯ̯ʌ]
  105. [nan]
  106. [naɪ̯]
  107. [neɪ̯]
  108. [ni]
  109. [nin]
  110. [niŋ]
  111. [niɛ]
  112. [niɛn]
  113. [ni̯ɑŋ]
  114. [ni̯ɑʊ̯]
  115. [ni̯ɤʊ̯]
  116. [nu]
  117. [nu̯an]
  118. [nu̯ɔ]
  119. [ny]
  120. [ny̯œ]
  121. [nɑ]
  122. [nɑŋ]
  123. [nɑʊ̯]
  124. [nən]
  125. [nəŋ]
  126. [nɤʊ̯]
  127. [nɯ̯ʌ]
  128. [nʊŋ]
  129. [pan]
  130. [paɪ̯]
  131. [peɪ̯]
  132. [pi]
  133. [pin]
  134. [piŋ]
  135. [piɛ]
  136. [piɛn]
  137. [pi̯ɑŋ]
  138. [pi̯ɑʊ̯]
  139. [pu]
  140. [pu̯ɔ]
  141. [pɑ]
  142. [pɑŋ]
  143. [pɑʊ̯]
  144. [pən]
  145. [pəŋ]
  146. [pʰan]
  147. [pʰaɪ̯]
  148. [pʰeɪ̯]
  149. [pʰi]
  150. [pʰin]
  151. [pʰiŋ]
  152. [pʰiɛ]
  153. [pʰiɛn]
  154. [pʰi̯ɑʊ̯]
  155. [pʰu]
  156. [pʰu̯ɔ]
  157. [pʰɑ]
  158. [pʰɑŋ]
  159. [pʰɑʊ̯]
  160. [pʰən]
  161. [pʰəŋ]
  162. [pʰɤʊ̯]
  163. [san]
  164. [saɪ̯]
  165. [su]
  166. [su̯an]
  167. [su̯eɪ̯]
  168. [su̯ɔ]
  169. [su̯ən]
  170. [sɑ]
  171. [sɑŋ]
  172. [sɑʊ̯]
  173. [sən]
  174. [səŋ]
  175. [sɤʊ̯]
  176. [sɯ̯ʌ]
  177. [sɿ]
  178. [sʊŋ]
  179. [tan]
  180. [taɪ̯]
  181. [teɪ̯]
  182. [ti]
  183. [tiŋ]
  184. [tiɛ]
  185. [tiɛn]
  186. [ti̯ɑʊ̯]
  187. [ti̯ɤʊ̯]
  188. [tsan]
  189. [tsaɪ̯]
  190. [tseɪ̯]
  191. [tsu]
  192. [tsu̯an]
  193. [tsu̯eɪ̯]
  194. [tsu̯ɔ]
  195. [tsu̯ən]
  196. [tsɑ]
  197. [tsɑŋ]
  198. [tsɑʊ̯]
  199. [tsən]
  200. [tsəŋ]
  201. [tsɤʊ̯]
  202. [tsɯ̯ʌ]
  203. [tsɿ]
  204. [tsʊŋ]
  205. [tsʰan]
  206. [tsʰaɪ̯]
  207. [tsʰeɪ̯]
  208. [tsʰu]
  209. [tsʰu̯an]
  210. [tsʰu̯eɪ̯]
  211. [tsʰu̯ɔ]
  212. [tsʰu̯ən]
  213. [tsʰɑ]
  214. [tsʰɑŋ]
  215. [tsʰɑʊ̯]
  216. [tsʰən]
  217. [tsʰəŋ]
  218. [tsʰɤʊ̯]
  219. [tsʰɯ̯ʌ]
  220. [tsʰɿ]
  221. [tsʰʊŋ]
  222. [tu]
  223. [tu̯an]
  224. [tu̯eɪ̯]
  225. [tu̯ɔ]
  226. [tu̯ən]
  227. [tɑ]
  228. [tɑŋ]
  229. [tɑʊ̯]
  230. [tɕi]
  231. [tɕin]
  232. [tɕiŋ]
  233. [tɕiɛ]
  234. [tɕiɛn]
  235. [tɕi̯ɑ]
  236. [tɕi̯ɑŋ]
  237. [tɕi̯ɑʊ̯]
  238. [tɕi̯ɤʊ̯]
  239. [tɕi̯ʊŋ]
  240. [tɕy]
  241. [tɕyn]
  242. [tɕy̯œ]
  243. [tɕy̯ɛn]
  244. [tɕʰi]
  245. [tɕʰin]
  246. [tɕʰiŋ]
  247. [tɕʰiɛ]
  248. [tɕʰiɛn]
  249. [tɕʰi̯ɑ]
  250. [tɕʰi̯ɑŋ]
  251. [tɕʰi̯ɑʊ̯]
  252. [tɕʰi̯ɤʊ̯]
  253. [tɕʰi̯ʊŋ]
  254. [tɕʰy]
  255. [tɕʰyn]
  256. [tɕʰy̯œ]
  257. [tɕʰy̯ɛn]
  258. [tən]
  259. [təŋ]
  260. [tɤʊ̯]
  261. [tɯ̯ʌ]
  262. [tʂan]
  263. [tʂaɪ̯]
  264. [tʂeɪ̯]
  265. [tʂu]
  266. [tʂu̯an]
  267. [tʂu̯aɪ̯]
  268. [tʂu̯eɪ̯]
  269. [tʂu̯ɑ]
  270. [tʂu̯ɔ]
  271. [tʂu̯ən]
  272. [tʂɑ]
  273. [tʂɑŋ]
  274. [tʂɑʊ̯]
  275. [tʂən]
  276. [tʂəŋ]
  277. [tʂɤʊ̯]
  278. [tʂɯ̯ʌ]
  279. [tʂʅ]
  280. [tʂʊŋ]
  281. [tʂʰan]
  282. [tʂʰaɪ̯]
  283. [tʂʰu]
  284. [tʂʰu̯an]
  285. [tʂʰu̯aɪ̯]
  286. [tʂʰu̯eɪ̯]
  287. [tʂʰu̯ɑ]
  288. [tʂʰu̯ɑŋ]
  289. [tʂʰu̯ɔ]
  290. [tʂʰu̯ən]
  291. [tʂʰɑ]
  292. [tʂʰɑŋ]
  293. [tʂʰɑʊ̯]
  294. [tʂʰən]
  295. [tʂʰəŋ]
  296. [tʂʰɤʊ̯]
  297. [tʂʰɯ̯ʌ]
  298. [tʂʰʅ]
  299. [tʂʰʊŋ]
  300. [tʂ̯u̯ɑŋ]
  301. [tʊŋ]
  302. [tʰan]
  303. [tʰaɪ̯]
  304. [tʰi]
  305. [tʰiŋ]
  306. [tʰiɛ]
  307. [tʰiɛn]
  308. [tʰi̯ɑʊ̯]
  309. [tʰu]
  310. [tʰu̯an]
  311. [tʰu̯eɪ̯]
  312. [tʰu̯ɔ]
  313. [tʰu̯ən]
  314. [tʰɑ]
  315. [tʰɑŋ]
  316. [tʰɑʊ̯]
  317. [tʰəŋ]
  318. [tʰɤʊ̯]
  319. [tʰɯ̯ʌ]
  320. [tʰʊŋ]
  321. [u]
  322. [u̯an]
  323. [u̯aɪ̯]
  324. [u̯eɪ̯]
  325. [u̯ɑ]
  326. [u̯ɑŋ]
  327. [u̯ɔ]
  328. [u̯ən]
  329. [u̯əŋ]
  330. [xan]
  331. [xaɪ̯]
  332. [xeɪ̯]
  333. [xu]
  334. [xu̯an]
  335. [xu̯aɪ̯]
  336. [xu̯eɪ̯]
  337. [xu̯ɑ]
  338. [xu̯ɑŋ]
  339. [xu̯ɔ]
  340. [xu̯ən]
  341. [xɑ]
  342. [xɑŋ]
  343. [xɑʊ̯]
  344. [xən]
  345. [xəŋ]
  346. [xɤʊ̯]
  347. [xɯ̯ʌ]
  348. [xʊŋ]
  349. [y]
  350. [yn]
  351. [y̯œ]
  352. [y̯ɛn]
  353. [ɑ]
  354. [ɑŋ]
  355. [ɑɻ]
  356. [ɑʊ̯]
  357. [ɔ]
  358. [ɕi]
  359. [ɕin]
  360. [ɕiŋ]
  361. [ɕiɛ]
  362. [ɕiɛn]
  363. [ɕi̯ɑ]
  364. [ɕi̯ɑŋ]
  365. [ɕi̯ɑʊ̯]
  366. [ɕi̯ɤʊ̯]
  367. [ɕi̯ʊŋ]
  368. [ɕy]
  369. [ɕyn]
  370. [ɕy̯œ]
  371. [ɕy̯ɛn]
  372. [ən]
  373. [əŋ]
  374. [ɤʊ̯]
  375. [ɯ̯ʌ]
  376. [ʂan]
  377. [ʂaɪ̯]
  378. [ʂeɪ̯]
  379. [ʂu]
  380. [ʂu̯an]
  381. [ʂu̯aɪ̯]
  382. [ʂu̯eɪ̯]
  383. [ʂu̯ɑ]
  384. [ʂu̯ɑŋ]
  385. [ʂu̯ɔ]
  386. [ʂu̯ən]
  387. [ʂɑ]
  388. [ʂɑŋ]
  389. [ʂɑʊ̯]
  390. [ʂən]
  391. [ʂəŋ]
  392. [ʂɤʊ̯]
  393. [ʂɯ̯ʌ]
  394. [ʂʅ]
  395. [ʐan]
  396. [ʐu]
  397. [ʐu̯an]
  398. [ʐu̯eɪ̯]
  399. [ʐu̯ɑ]
  400. [ʐu̯ɔ]
  401. [ʐu̯ən]
  402. [ʐɑŋ]
  403. [ʐɑʊ̯]
  404. [ʐən]
  405. [ʐəŋ]
  406. [ʐɤʊ̯]
  407. [ʐɯ̯ʌ]
  408. [ʐʅ]
  409. [ʐʊŋ]


Sources and further reading