Difference between revisions of "State complement"

 
(2 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 33: Line 33:
 
*弟弟 <strong>做</strong> 作业 <strong>做</strong> <em>得 很 慢</em> 。<span class="trans">My younger brother does his homework very slowly.</span>
 
*弟弟 <strong>做</strong> 作业 <strong>做</strong> <em>得 很 慢</em> 。<span class="trans">My younger brother does his homework very slowly.</span>
 
*他 <strong>打</strong> 篮球 <strong>打</strong> <em>得 非常 好</em> 。<span class="trans">He is very good at basketball.</span>
 
*他 <strong>打</strong> 篮球 <strong>打</strong> <em>得 非常 好</em> 。<span class="trans">He is very good at basketball.</span>
*妈妈 <strong>洗</strong> 衣服 <strong>洗</strong> <em>得 干 不 干净</em> ?<span class="trans">Did mother wash the clothes well [clean]?</span>
+
*妈妈 <strong>洗</strong> 衣服 <strong>洗</strong> <em>得 干 不 干净</em> ?<span class="trans">Did mother wash the clothes well [get them clean]?</span>
 
*我们 班 谁 <strong>说</strong> 汉语 <strong>说</strong> <em>得 最 流利</em> ?<span class="trans">Who speaks Chinese most fluently in our class?</span>
 
*我们 班 谁 <strong>说</strong> 汉语 <strong>说</strong> <em>得 最 流利</em> ?<span class="trans">Who speaks Chinese most fluently in our class?</span>
  
Line 52: Line 52:
 
<div class="liju">
 
<div class="liju">
  
*我 <strong>累</strong> <em>得 不 想 说话 </em>。 <span class="trans">My son played the video games to the point where he didn't sleep at all last night.</span>
+
*我 <strong>累</strong> <em>得 不 想 说话 </em>。 <span class="trans">I was so tired that I didn't want to talk.</span>
 
*我 的 牙 <strong>疼</strong> <em>得 我 睡 不 着</em> 。 <span class="trans">My teeth aches to the point where I can't sleep.</span>
 
*我 的 牙 <strong>疼</strong> <em>得 我 睡 不 着</em> 。 <span class="trans">My teeth aches to the point where I can't sleep.</span>
*听到 这个 消息 ,她 <strong>激动</strong> <em>得 哭 了 起来</em> 。<span class="expl">The state complement in this example is used to describe the state of excitement the subject has arrived at.</span><span class="trans">Hearing this news, she was excited to point where she started crying.</span>
+
*听到 这个 消息 ,她 <strong>激动</strong> <em>得 哭 了 起来</em> 。<span class="trans">Hearing this news, she was excited to point where she started crying.</span>
  
 
</div>
 
</div>
Line 72: Line 72:
 
*天气 <strong>热</strong> <em> 得 我 只 想 待 在 空调 房 里 </em> 。<span class="trans">The weather is hot to the point where I only want to stay in the room with AC.</span>
 
*天气 <strong>热</strong> <em> 得 我 只 想 待 在 空调 房 里 </em> 。<span class="trans">The weather is hot to the point where I only want to stay in the room with AC.</span>
 
*地铁 <strong>挤</strong> <em> 得 有的 人 下 不 去 </em> 。<span class="trans">The metro was crowded to the point where some people couldn't get off.</span>
 
*地铁 <strong>挤</strong> <em> 得 有的 人 下 不 去 </em> 。<span class="trans">The metro was crowded to the point where some people couldn't get off.</span>
*他 <strong>忙</strong> 得 <em>忘 了 给 女儿 买 生日 礼物</em> 。 <span class="expl">Here the state complement is a verb phrase and expresses the state to which the subject got caught up in his business.</span><span class="trans">He's busy to the point where he forgot to buy her daughter a birthday present.</span>
+
*他 <strong>忙</strong> 得 <em>忘 了 给 女儿 买 生日 礼物</em> 。 <span class="trans">He's so busy that he forgot to buy her daughter a birthday present.</span>
  
 
</div>
 
</div>

Latest revision as of 06:48, 11 January 2020

Also known as: 状态补语 (zhuàngtài bǔyǔ), 情态补语 (qíngtài bǔyǔ) and complement of state.

State complements describe an achieved state of an action. State complements are usually adjective phrases (adverb + adjective) but can take the form of verb phrases, subject-predicate phrases, or other complements. State complements that are adjective phrases often look the same as degree complements and thus are often lumped together with degree complements in textbooks.

Adjective as State Complements

In a state complement phrase, the verb must be followed by 得, and then the complement follows. The most common type of state complement, where the complement is an adjective phrase, is formed by placing the adjective phrase after 得.

Sometimes there is also an adverb before the adjective, such as 很, 非常, 不太, 有点, etc.

Structure

Verb / Adj. + 得 + State Complement

Examples

  • 得 有点 晚She came a little late.
  • 老师 今天 穿 得 非常 漂亮The teacher dressed very nicely today.
  • 孩子们 得 很 开心The kids are having lots of fun.
  • 我 昨天 得 不 太 好I didn't sleep very well yesterday.
  • 哪个 城市 发展 得 最 快Which city has developed most rapidly?

If the verb taking a complement also has an object, you can repeat the verb: once for the object, then once for the complement:

  • 弟弟 作业 得 很 慢My younger brother does his homework very slowly.
  • 篮球 得 非常 好He is very good at basketball.
  • 妈妈 衣服 得 干 不 干净Did mother wash the clothes well [get them clean]?
  • 我们 班 谁 汉语 得 最 流利Who speaks Chinese most fluently in our class?

Verb Phrases as State Complements

Verb phrases (VP), subject-predicate phrases (SP) can also serve as complements of state. As with adjective phrase state complements, they can describe a state that arose from the action of the main verb in the sentence.

Structure

Verb / Adj. + 得 + State Complement

Examples

  • 得 不 想 说话 I was so tired that I didn't want to talk.
  • 我 的 牙 得 我 睡 不 着My teeth aches to the point where I can't sleep.
  • 听到 这个 消息 ,她 激动 得 哭 了 起来Hearing this news, she was excited to point where she started crying.

More Advanced State Complements

Structure

Verb / Adj. + 得 + State Complement

Examples

  • 天气 得 我 只 想 待 在 空调 房 里 The weather is hot to the point where I only want to stay in the room with AC.
  • 地铁 得 有的 人 下 不 去 The metro was crowded to the point where some people couldn't get off.
  • 忘 了 给 女儿 买 生日 礼物He's so busy that he forgot to buy her daughter a birthday present.

References and Further Reading

Books

Websites