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Difference between revisions of "The "a" vowel"

(Moved pinyin chart scripts to widget)
m (Switched to templatized pinyin chart widget)
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{{#widget: Pinyin chart settings}}
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart settings}}
<div class="pinyin-table-audio-container"></div>
+
{{#widget: Pinyin chart
<div class="table-container"><table class="pinyin-table medium" id="pinyin-table">
+
| exclude_col_e
<tr><!--  TABLE HEADERS  -->
+
| exclude_col_o
<th class="first-row first-col"></th>
+
| exclude_col_i
<th title="Click to expand" class="col-a col-placeholder first-row"><strong>-a-</strong></th>
+
| exclude_col_u
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-a" id="-a"><strong>-a</strong></th>
+
| exclude_col_v
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-a" id="-ai"><strong>-ai</strong></th>
+
| exclude_row_null
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-a" id="-ao"><strong>-ao</strong></th>
+
| exclude_row_jqx
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-a" id="-an"><strong>-an</strong></th>
+
| exclude_row_zhchshr
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-a" id="-ang"><strong>-ang</strong></th>
+
}}
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  B- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="b-"><strong>b-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="ba"><div class="table-pinyin">ba</div><div class="table-link">[[ba]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pa</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="bai"><div class="table-pinyin">bai</div><div class="table-link">[[bai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[paɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="bao"><div class="table-pinyin">bao</div><div class="table-link">[[bao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="ban"><div class="table-pinyin">ban</div><div class="table-link">[[ban]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="bang"><div class="table-pinyin">bang</div><div class="table-link">[[bang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  P- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="p-"><strong>p-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="pa"><div class="table-pinyin">pa</div><div class="table-link">[[pa]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'a</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="pai"><div class="table-pinyin">pai</div><div class="table-link">[[pai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰaɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'ai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="pao"><div class="table-pinyin">pao</div><div class="table-link">[[pao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'ao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="pan"><div class="table-pinyin">pan</div><div class="table-link">[[pan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰan] </div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'an</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="pang"><div class="table-pinyin">pang</div><div class="table-link">[[pang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'ang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  M- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="m-"><strong>m-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="ma"><div class="table-pinyin">ma</div><div class="table-link">[[ma]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[mɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ma</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="mai"><div class="table-pinyin">mai</div><div class="table-link">[[mai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[maɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">mai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="mao"><div class="table-pinyin">mao</div><div class="table-link">[[mao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[mɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">mao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="man"><div class="table-pinyin">man</div><div class="table-link">[[man]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[man]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">man</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="mang"><div class="table-pinyin">mang</div><div class="table-link">[[mang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[mɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">mang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  F- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="f-"><strong>f-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="fa"><div class="table-pinyin">fa</div><div class="table-link">[[fa]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[fɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">fa</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="fan"><div class="table-pinyin">fan</div><div class="table-link">[[fan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[fan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">fan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-a" id="fang"><div class="table-pinyin">fang</div><div class="table-link">[[fang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[fɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">fang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  D- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="d-"><strong>d-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="da"><div class="table-pinyin">da</div><div class="table-link">[[da]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ta</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="dai"><div class="table-pinyin">dai</div><div class="table-link">[[dai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[taɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">tai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="dao"><div class="table-pinyin">dao</div><div class="table-link">[[dao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">tao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="dan"><div class="table-pinyin">dan</div><div class="table-link">[[dan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">tan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="dang"><div class="table-pinyin">dang</div><div class="table-link">[[dang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">tang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  T- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="t-"><strong>t-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="ta"><div class="table-pinyin">ta</div><div class="table-link">[[ta]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'a</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="tai"><div class="table-pinyin">tai</div><div class="table-link">[[tai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰaɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'ai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="tao"><div class="table-pinyin">tao</div><div class="table-link">[[tao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'ao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="tan"><div class="table-pinyin">tan</div><div class="table-link">[[tan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'an</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="tang"><div class="table-pinyin">tang</div><div class="table-link">[[tang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'ang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  N- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="n-"><strong>n-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="na"><div class="table-pinyin">na</div><div class="table-link">[[na]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">na</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="nai"><div class="table-pinyin">nai</div><div class="table-link">[[nai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[naɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="nao"><div class="table-pinyin">nao</div><div class="table-link">[[nao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="nan"><div class="table-pinyin">nan</div><div class="table-link">[[nan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="nang"><div class="table-pinyin">nang</div><div class="table-link">[[nang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  L- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="l-"><strong>l-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="la"><div class="table-pinyin">la</div><div class="table-link">[[la]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[lɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">la</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="lai"><div class="table-pinyin">lai</div><div class="table-link">[[lai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[laɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">lai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="lao"><div class="table-pinyin">lao</div><div class="table-link">[[lao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[lɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">lao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="lan"><div class="table-pinyin">lan</div><div class="table-link">[[lan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[lan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">lan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-a" id="lang"><div class="table-pinyin">lang</div><div class="table-link">[[lang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[lɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">lang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  S- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-zcs first-col" id="s-"><strong>s-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a" id="sa"><div class="table-pinyin">sa</div><div class="table-link">[[sa]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[sɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">sa</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a" id="sai"><div class="table-pinyin">sai</div><div class="table-link">[[sai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[saɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">sai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a" id="sao"><div class="table-pinyin">sao</div><div class="table-link">[[sao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[sɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">sao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a" id="san"><div class="table-pinyin">san</div><div class="table-link">[[san]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[san]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">san</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-a" id="sang"><div class="table-pinyin">sang</div><div class="table-link">[[sang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[sɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">sang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  G- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="g-"><strong>g-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="ga"><div class="table-pinyin">ga</div><div class="table-link">[[ga]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ka</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="gai"><div class="table-pinyin">gai</div><div class="table-link">[[gai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kaɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">kai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="gao"><div class="table-pinyin">gao</div><div class="table-link">[[gao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">kao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="gan"><div class="table-pinyin">gan</div><div class="table-link">[[gan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">kan</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="gang"><div class="table-pinyin">gang</div><div class="table-link">[[gang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">kang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  K- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="k-"><strong>k-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="ka"><div class="table-pinyin">ka</div><div class="table-link">[[ka]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'a</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="kai"><div class="table-pinyin">kai</div><div class="table-link">[[kai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰaɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'ai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="kao"><div class="table-pinyin">kao</div><div class="table-link">[[kao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'ao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="kan"><div class="table-pinyin">kan</div><div class="table-link">[[kan]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'an</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="kang"><div class="table-pinyin">kang</div><div class="table-link">[[kang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'ang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  H- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="h-"><strong>h-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="ha"><div class="table-pinyin">ha</div><div class="table-link">[[ha]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xɑ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄚ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ha</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="hai"><div class="table-pinyin">hai</div><div class="table-link">[[hai]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xaɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄞ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">hai</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="hao"><div class="table-pinyin">hao</div><div class="table-link">[[hao]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xɑʊ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄠ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">hao</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="han"><div class="table-pinyin">han</div><div class="table-link">[[han]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xan]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄢ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">han</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-a" id="hang"><div class="table-pinyin">hang</div><div class="table-link">[[hang]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xɑŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄤ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">hang</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
</table></div>
+
 
+
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart scripts}}
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart scripts}}
  

Revision as of 03:15, 9 June 2015

The first vowel you want to learn in pinyin is "a." It can combine with all of those easy sounds you already learned in part 1 of this guide, so it's a great place to start.

Pinyin's Main "a" Vowel Sound

Although the "a" sound in Chinese can vary a little bit, and is slightly changed when followed by a "-n" or a "-ng" sound, it should sound more or less consistent in the syllables introduced in this section. Remember that you can click on the sounds in the chart fragment to hear audio.

  • -a sounds like the "a" sound in the English words "ah" or "ha" or "father".
  • -ai sounds like the "ai" in the English words "Thai" and "aisle".
  • -ao sounds pretty much like the word "Tao"/"Dao" which we've imported into English from Chinese, or the "ow" in the English word "how", but with a rather muted “w” sound at the end.
  • -an sounds similar to “on” (minus a strong “aw” sound like in “lawn”) but you may also hear a hint of the vowel sound in the English word “can”. This sound doesn't match up to English sounds perfectly, but it's not hard to approximate.
  • -ang sounds similar to the "ong" sound in the word "King Kong". Because you have the nasalized "-ng" ending, the "a" vowel changes slightly, but that's not something you should have to worry about too much.

Pinyin Chart Fragment

This is just a part of the full pinyin chart, limited to the sounds we've covered so far.

Tone: 1 2 3 4 1234 [Show more Settings]

Additional Settings

Show Text: IPA Zhuyin Wade-Giles

Text Size: Small Medium Large

Chart Mode: Audio Links (disables audio)

Tone: 1 2 3 4 1234 [Show more Settings]

Additional Settings

Show Text: IPA Zhuyin Wade-Giles

Text Size: Small Medium Large

Chart Mode: Audio Links (disables audio)

-a- -a -ai -ao -an -ang -e- -o- -i- -u- -ü-
b-
ba
[pɑ]
ㄅㄚ
pa
bai
[paɪ̯]
ㄅㄞ
pai
bao
[pɑʊ̯]
ㄅㄠ
pao
ban
[pan]
ㄅㄢ
pan
bang
[pɑŋ]
ㄅㄤ
pang
b-
p-
pa
[pʰɑ]
ㄆㄚ
p'a
pai
[pʰaɪ̯]
ㄆㄞ
p'ai
pao
[pʰɑʊ̯]
ㄆㄠ
p'ao
pan
[pʰan]
ㄆㄢ
p'an
pang
[pʰɑŋ]
ㄆㄤ
p'ang
p-
m-
ma
[mɑ]
ㄇㄚ
ma
mai
[maɪ̯]
ㄇㄞ
mai
mao
[mɑʊ̯]
ㄇㄠ
mao
man
[man]
ㄇㄢ
man
mang
[mɑŋ]
ㄇㄤ
mang
m-
f-
fa
[fɑ]
ㄈㄚ
fa
fan
[fan]
ㄈㄢ
fan
fang
[fɑŋ]
ㄈㄤ
fang
f-
d-
da
[tɑ]
ㄉㄚ
ta
dai
[taɪ̯]
ㄉㄞ
tai
dao
[tɑʊ̯]
ㄉㄠ
tao
dan
[tan]
ㄉㄢ
tan
dang
[tɑŋ]
ㄉㄤ
tang
d-
t-
ta
[tʰɑ]
ㄊㄚ
t'a
tai
[tʰaɪ̯]
ㄊㄞ
t'ai
tao
[tʰɑʊ̯]
ㄊㄠ
t'ao
tan
[tʰan]
ㄊㄢ
t'an
tang
[tʰɑŋ]
ㄊㄤ
t'ang
t-
n-
na
[nɑ]
ㄋㄚ
na
nai
[naɪ̯]
ㄋㄞ
nai
nao
[nɑʊ̯]
ㄋㄠ
nao
nan
[nan]
ㄋㄢ
nan
nang
[nɑŋ]
ㄋㄤ
nang
n-
l-
la
[lɑ]
ㄌㄚ
la
lai
[laɪ̯]
ㄌㄞ
lai
lao
[lɑʊ̯]
ㄌㄠ
lao
lan
[lan]
ㄌㄢ
lan
lang
[lɑŋ]
ㄌㄤ
lang
l-
z-
za
[tsɑ]
ㄗㄚ
tsa
zai
[tsaɪ̯]
ㄗㄞ
tsai
zao
[tsɑʊ̯]
ㄗㄠ
tsao
zan
[tsan]
ㄗㄢ
tsan
zang
[tsɑŋ]
ㄗㄤ
tsang
z-
c-
ca
[tsʰɑ]
ㄘㄚ
ts'a
cai
[tsʰaɪ̯]
ㄘㄞ
ts'ai
cao
[tsʰɑʊ̯]
ㄘㄠ
ts'ao
can
[tsʰan]
ㄘㄢ
ts'an
cang
[tsʰɑŋ]
ㄘㄤ
ts'ang
c-
s-
sa
[sɑ]
ㄙㄚ
sa
sai
[saɪ̯]
ㄙㄞ
sai
sao
[sɑʊ̯]
ㄙㄠ
sao
san
[san]
ㄙㄢ
san
sang
[sɑŋ]
ㄙㄤ
sang
s-
g-
ga
[kɑ]
ㄍㄚ
ka
gai
[kaɪ̯]
ㄍㄞ
kai
gao
[kɑʊ̯]
ㄍㄠ
kao
gan
[kan]
ㄍㄢ
kan
gang
[kɑŋ]
ㄍㄤ
kang
g-
k-
ka
[kʰɑ]
ㄎㄚ
k'a
kai
[kʰaɪ̯]
ㄎㄞ
k'ai
kao
[kʰɑʊ̯]
ㄎㄠ
k'ao
kan
[kʰan]
ㄎㄢ
k'an
kang
[kʰɑŋ]
ㄎㄤ
k'ang
k-
h-
ha
[xɑ]
ㄏㄚ
ha
hai
[xaɪ̯]
ㄏㄞ
hai
hao
[xɑʊ̯]
ㄏㄠ
hao
han
[xan]
ㄏㄢ
han
hang
[xɑŋ]
ㄏㄤ
hang
h-
-a- -a -ai -ao -an -ang -e- -o- -i- -u- -ü-

Pinyin's Alternate "a" Vowel Sounds

The letter "a" in pinyin can actually make different sounds as well, when it is part of the "-ian" and "-üan" finals. Those sounds will be covered in later sections of this guide.

For now, let's move on to the "e" vowel.

Sources and further reading