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Difference between revisions of "The "e" vowel"

(Moved pinyin chart scripts to widget)
(Uses widget for chart fragment)
Line 22: Line 22:
  
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart settings}}
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart settings}}
<div class="pinyin-table-audio-container"></div>
+
{{#widget: Pinyin chart
<div class="table-container"><table class="pinyin-table medium" id="pinyin-table">
+
| exclude_col_a
<tr><!--  TABLE HEADERS  -->
+
| exclude_col_o
<th class="first-row first-col"></th>
+
| exclude_col_u
<th title="Click to expand" class="col-e col-placeholder first-row"><strong>-e-</strong></th>
+
| exclude_col_i
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-e" id="-e"><strong>-e</strong></th>
+
| exclude_col_v
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-e" id="-ei"><strong>-ei</strong></th>
+
| exclude_row_jqx
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-e" id="-en"><strong>-en</strong></th>
+
| exclude_row_zhchshr
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-e" id="-eng"><strong>-eng</strong></th>
+
}}
<th title="Click to collapse" class="first-row col-e" id="-er"><strong>-er</strong></th>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  ZERO-INITIAL ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-null first-col" id="∅-"><strong>∅-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-null col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-null col-e" id="e"><div class="table-pinyin">e</div><div class="table-link">[[e]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[ɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">e</div></td>
+
<td class="row-null col-e" id="ei"><div class="table-pinyin">ei</div><div class="table-link">[[ei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[eɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-null col-e" id="en"><div class="table-pinyin">en</div><div class="table-link">[[en]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[ən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">en</div></td>
+
<td class="row-null col-e" id="eng"><div class="table-pinyin">eng</div><div class="table-link">[[eng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[əŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">eng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-null col-e" id="er"><div class="table-pinyin">er</div><div class="table-link">[[er]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[ɑɻ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄦ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">erh</div></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  B- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="b-"><strong>b-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="bei"><div class="table-pinyin">bei</div><div class="table-link">[[bei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[peɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="ben"><div class="table-pinyin">ben</div><div class="table-link">[[ben]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">pen</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="beng"><div class="table-pinyin">beng</div><div class="table-link">[[beng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄅㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">peng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  P- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="p-"><strong>p-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="pei"><div class="table-pinyin">pei</div><div class="table-link">[[pei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰeɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'ei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="pen"><div class="table-pinyin">pen</div><div class="table-link">[[pen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'en</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="peng"><div class="table-pinyin">peng</div><div class="table-link">[[peng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[pʰəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄆㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">p'eng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  M- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="m-"><strong>m-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="me"><div class="table-pinyin">me</div><div class="table-link">[[me]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[mɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">me</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="mei"><div class="table-pinyin">mei</div><div class="table-link">[[mei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[meɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">mei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="men"><div class="table-pinyin">men</div><div class="table-link">[[men]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[mən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">men</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="meng"><div class="table-pinyin">meng</div><div class="table-link">[[meng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[məŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄇㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">meng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  F- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-bpmf first-col" id="f-"><strong>f-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="fei"><div class="table-pinyin">fei</div><div class="table-link">[[fei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[feɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">fei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="fen"><div class="table-pinyin">fen</div><div class="table-link">[[fen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[fən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">fen</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e" id="feng"><div class="table-pinyin">feng</div><div class="table-link">[[feng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[fəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄈㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">feng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-bpmf col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  D- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="d-"><strong>d-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="de"><div class="table-pinyin">de</div><div class="table-link">[[de]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">te</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="dei"><div class="table-pinyin">dei</div><div class="table-link">[[dei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[teɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">tei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="den"><div class="table-pinyin">den</div><div class="table-link">[[den]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ten</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="deng"><div class="table-pinyin">deng</div><div class="table-link">[[deng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[təŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄉㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">teng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  T- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="t-"><strong>t-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="te"><div class="table-pinyin">te</div><div class="table-link">[[te]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'e</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="teng"><div class="table-pinyin">teng</div><div class="table-link">[[teng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[tʰəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄊㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">t'eng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  N- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="n-"><strong>n-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="ne"><div class="table-pinyin">ne</div><div class="table-link">[[ne]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ne</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="nei"><div class="table-pinyin">nei</div><div class="table-link">[[nei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[neɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="nen"><div class="table-pinyin">nen</div><div class="table-link">[[nen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">nen</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="neng"><div class="table-pinyin">neng</div><div class="table-link">[[neng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[nəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄋㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">neng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  L- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-dtnl first-col" id="l-"><strong>l-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="le"><div class="table-pinyin">le</div><div class="table-link">[[le]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[lɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">le</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="lei"><div class="table-pinyin">lei</div><div class="table-link">[[lei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[leɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">lei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e" id="leng"><div class="table-pinyin">leng</div><div class="table-link">[[leng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[ləŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄌㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">leng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-dtnl col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  S- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-zcs first-col" id="s-"><strong>s-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e" id="se"><div class="table-pinyin">se</div><div class="table-link">[[se]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[sɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">se</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e"></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e" id="sen"><div class="table-pinyin">sen</div><div class="table-link">[[sen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[sən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">sen</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e" id="seng"><div class="table-pinyin">seng</div><div class="table-link">[[seng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[səŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄙㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">seng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-zcs col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  G- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="g-"><strong>g-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="ge"><div class="table-pinyin">ge</div><div class="table-link">[[ge]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ke</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="gei"><div class="table-pinyin">gei</div><div class="table-link">[[gei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[keɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">kei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="gen"><div class="table-pinyin">gen</div><div class="table-link">[[gen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">ken</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="geng"><div class="table-pinyin">geng</div><div class="table-link">[[geng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄍㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">keng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  K- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="k-"><strong>k-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="ke"><div class="table-pinyin">ke</div><div class="table-link">[[ke]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'e</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="kei"><div class="table-pinyin">kei</div><div class="table-link">[[kei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰeɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'ei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="ken"><div class="table-pinyin">ken</div><div class="table-link">[[ken]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'en</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="keng"><div class="table-pinyin">keng</div><div class="table-link">[[keng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[kʰəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄎㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">k'eng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
 
+
<tr><!--  H- ROW  -->
+
<th class="row-gkh first-col" id="h-"><strong>h-</strong></th>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e col-placeholder"></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="he"><div class="table-pinyin">he</div><div class="table-link">[[he]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xɯ̯ʌ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄜ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">he</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="hei"><div class="table-pinyin">hei</div><div class="table-link">[[hei]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xeɪ̯]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄟ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">hei</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="hen"><div class="table-pinyin">hen</div><div class="table-link">[[hen]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xən]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄣ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">hen</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e" id="heng"><div class="table-pinyin">heng</div><div class="table-link">[[heng]]</div><div class="table-ipa">[xəŋ]</div><div class="table-zhuyin">ㄏㄥ</div><div class="table-wade-giles">heng</div></td>
+
<td class="row-gkh col-e"></td>
+
</tr>
+
</table></div>
+
 
+
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart scripts}}
 
{{#widget: Pinyin chart scripts}}
  

Revision as of 01:53, 10 June 2015

The "a" vowel is a pretty easy one. Time to take on a vowel that is just slightly trickier. The "e" in Mandarin Chinese is slightly tricky because it can be pronounced in two different ways. You simply have to memorize when it makes one sound and when it makes the other.

Pinyin's Main "e" Vowel Sound

The main sound that pinyin "e" makes is a rather unexpected "uh" sound, totally different from both the short "e" sound of "pen" in English, and the long "e" sound of "see".

  • -e sounds kind of like the English "duh" or "uhhh" sound (like somone thinking or getting punched in the stomach).
  • -en sounds how you'd expect; the above "-e" sound followed by the "-n" sound. It's kind of like the "un" sound in the English word "sun", but not exactly the same.
  • -eng also sounds how you'd expect; the above "-e" sound followed by the "-ng" sound. It's kind of like the "ung" sound in the English word "sung", but not exactly the same.

An Alternate "e" Vowel Sound

Now that you know the main sound that "e" makes in pinyin, you also need to learn a different sound it makes (which also appears in the chart fragment below).

  • -ei sounds like the vowel in the English word "eight" or the Japanese brand "Seiko".

Pinyin Chart Fragment

This is just a part of the full pinyin chart, limited to the sounds we've covered in this section.

Tone: 1 2 3 4 1234 [Show more Settings]

Additional Settings

Show Text: IPA Zhuyin Wade-Giles

Text Size: Small Medium Large

Chart Mode: Audio Links (disables audio)

Tone: 1 2 3 4 1234 [Show more Settings]

Additional Settings

Show Text: IPA Zhuyin Wade-Giles

Text Size: Small Medium Large

Chart Mode: Audio Links (disables audio)

-a- -e- -e -ei -en -eng -er -o- -i- -u- -ü-
∅-
e
[ɯ̯ʌ]
e
ei
[eɪ̯]
ei
en
[ən]
en
eng
[əŋ]
eng
er
[ɑɻ]
erh
∅-
b-
bei
[peɪ̯]
ㄅㄟ
pei
ben
[pən]
ㄅㄣ
pen
beng
[pəŋ]
ㄅㄥ
peng
b-
p-
pei
[pʰeɪ̯]
ㄆㄟ
p'ei
pen
[pʰən]
ㄆㄣ
p'en
peng
[pʰəŋ]
ㄆㄥ
p'eng
p-
m-
me
[mɯ̯ʌ]
ㄇㄜ
me
mei
[meɪ̯]
ㄇㄟ
mei
men
[mən]
ㄇㄣ
men
meng
[məŋ]
ㄇㄥ
meng
m-
f-
fei
[feɪ̯]
ㄈㄟ
fei
fen
[fən]
ㄈㄣ
fen
feng
[fəŋ]
ㄈㄥ
feng
f-
d-
de
[tɯ̯ʌ]
ㄉㄜ
te
dei
[teɪ̯]
ㄉㄟ
tei
den
[tən]
ㄉㄣ
ten
deng
[təŋ]
ㄉㄥ
teng
d-
t-
te
[tʰɯ̯ʌ]
ㄊㄜ
t'e
teng
[tʰəŋ]
ㄊㄥ
t'eng
t-
n-
ne
[nɯ̯ʌ]
ㄋㄜ
ne
nei
[neɪ̯]
ㄋㄟ
nei
nen
[nən]
ㄋㄣ
nen
neng
[nəŋ]
ㄋㄥ
neng
n-
l-
le
[lɯ̯ʌ]
ㄌㄜ
le
lei
[leɪ̯]
ㄌㄟ
lei
leng
[ləŋ]
ㄌㄥ
leng
l-
z-
ze
[tsɯ̯ʌ]
ㄗㄜ
tse
zei
[tseɪ̯]
ㄗㄟ
tsei
zen
[tsən]
ㄗㄣ
tsen
zeng
[tsəŋ]
ㄗㄥ
tseng
z-
c-
ce
[tsʰɯ̯ʌ]
ㄘㄜ
ts'e
cei
[tsʰeɪ̯]
ㄘㄟ
ts'ei
cen
[tsʰən]
ㄘㄣ
ts'en
ceng
[tsʰəŋ]
ㄘㄥ
ts'eng
c-
s-
se
[sɯ̯ʌ]
ㄙㄜ
se
sen
[sən]
ㄙㄣ
sen
seng
[səŋ]
ㄙㄥ
seng
s-
g-
ge
[kɯ̯ʌ]
ㄍㄜ
ke
gei
[keɪ̯]
ㄍㄟ
kei
gen
[kən]
ㄍㄣ
ken
geng
[kəŋ]
ㄍㄥ
keng
g-
k-
ke
[kʰɯ̯ʌ]
ㄎㄜ
k'e
kei
[kʰeɪ̯]
ㄎㄟ
k'ei
ken
[kʰən]
ㄎㄣ
k'en
keng
[kʰəŋ]
ㄎㄥ
k'eng
k-
h-
he
[xɯ̯ʌ]
ㄏㄜ
he
hei
[xeɪ̯]
ㄏㄟ
hei
hen
[xən]
ㄏㄣ
hen
heng
[xəŋ]
ㄏㄥ
heng
h-
-a- -e- -e -ei -en -eng -er -o- -i- -u- -ü-

Other "e" Vowel Sounds

Later on you'll learn that pinyin "e" makes a sound similar to -ei in the final -üe, but we're leaving that for another section.

Now let's move on to the "i" vowel.

Sources and further reading