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Difference between revisions of "Erhua"

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{{AKA|erization|儿化 (érhuà)|儿化音 (érhuàyīn)}}
 
{{AKA|erization|儿化 (érhuà)|儿化音 (érhuàyīn)}}
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{{Pronunciation Box}}
  
"Erhua" refers to the addition of a final "-r" sound to a syllable in Mandarin. It is especially common in the Beijing [[dialect]], but is also a feature of [[standard Chinese]] as well.
+
"Erhua" refers to the addition of a final "[[-r]]" sound to a syllable in Mandarin. It is especially common in the Beijing [[dialect]], but is also a feature of [[standard Chinese]] as well.
  
== Common Examples of Erhua ==
+
== A Few Rules about Erhua ==
  
花儿
+
Erhua can be confusing to beginners because it's slightly more complicated than simply adding an "[[-r]]" sound to the end of a syllable.
 +
 
 +
# The '''character''' 儿 (ér) can be a syllable, as in the two-syllable word 儿子 (érzi), but erhua is not a syllable; it is pronounced as part of the syllable that it comes after
 +
# When you add erhua to the end of a syllable ending in [[-n]] or [[-ng]], you don't pronounce the [[-n]] or [[-ng]] (even though you still write it); you pronounce the final [[-r]] sound instead
 +
# The vowel sound of a syllable may change slightly with the addition of the erhua (e.g. "[[shi]] + [[-r]]" may sound kind of like "''shar''")
 +
# Erhua can be written as 儿, but it doesn't ''need'' to be written to be pronounced (e.g. a southerner will generally pronounce 花 as "huā", but a Beijinger will pronounce it as "huār")
 +
 
 +
== Common Examples of Erhua ==
 +
<div class="liju">
 +
* 这<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">zhè<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">here</span>
 +
* 那<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nà<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">there</span>
 +
* 哪<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nǎ<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">where</span>
 +
* 玩<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">wán<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">to play</span>
 +
* 好玩<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">hǎowán<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">fun</span>
 +
* 小孩<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">xiǎohái<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">child</span>
 +
* 女孩<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nǚhái<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">girl</span>
 +
* 男孩<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nánhái<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">boy</span>
 +
* 花<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">huā<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">flower</span>
 +
* 一点<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">yīdiǎn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">a little [http://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Comparing_%22youdian%22_and_%22yidian%22 as quantifier]</span>
 +
* 有点<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">yǒudiǎn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">a little bit [http://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Comparing_%22youdian%22_and_%22yidian%22 as an adverb]</span>
 +
* 一会<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">yīhuǐ<em>r</em>, yīhuì<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">a while; after a while</span>
 +
* 没事<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">méishì<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">it's OK; not a problem.</span>
 +
* 一半<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">yībàn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">half</span>
 +
* 小鸟<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">xiǎo niǎo<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">little bird</span>
 +
* 土豆<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">tǔdòu<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">potato</span>
 +
* 羊肉串<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">yángròuchuàn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">mutton skewers</span>
 +
* 生鱼片<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">shēngyú piān<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">sashimi</span>
 +
* 馅<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">xiàn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">stuffing</span>
 +
</div>
  
 
== Writing Erhua ==
 
== Writing Erhua ==
  
花儿、哪儿
+
For a few select words, it is customary to write out the erhua using the character 儿:
 +
 
 +
<div class="liju">
 +
* 这<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">zhè<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">here</span>
 +
* 那<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nà<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">there</span>
 +
* 哪<em>儿</em><span class="pinyin">nǎ<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">where</span>
 +
</div>
  
 
== Optional Erhua ==
 
== Optional Erhua ==
  
+
For many other words, writing the 儿 is optional. Northerners will likely pronounce the following words ''with erhua'', no matter whether it is written with or without the 儿.
 +
 
 +
<div class="liju">
 +
* <em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">huā<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">flower</span>
 +
* 小鸟<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">xiǎoniǎo<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">little bird</span>
 +
* 小孩<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">xiǎohái<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">child</span>
 +
* 好玩<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">hǎowán<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">interesting;fun</span>
 +
* 羊肉串<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">yángròuchuàn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">mutton skewers</span>
 +
* 生鱼片<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">shēngyú piān<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">sashimi</span>
 +
* 没事<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">méishì<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">That's ok.</span>
 +
* 土豆<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">tǔdòu<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">potato</span>
 +
* 小偷<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">xiǎotōu<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">thief</span>
 +
* 一半<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">yībàn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">half</span>
 +
* 有点<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">yǒudiǎn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">a little bit [http://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Comparing_%22youdian%22_and_%22yidian%22 as an adverb]</span>
 +
* 一点<em>(儿)</em><span class="pinyin">yīdiǎn<em>r</em></span> <span class="trans">a little [http://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Comparing_%22youdian%22_and_%22yidian%22 as a quantifier]</span>
 +
 
 +
</div>
  
 
== Sources and further reading ==
 
== Sources and further reading ==
  
 +
* MIT.edu: [http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.102/s06/audio/Unit%205.15%20Pronun%20erhua.mp3 Erhua Recordings] (MP3)
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erhua Erhua]
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erhua Erhua]
 
* Wikipedia: [http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%92%E5%8C%96%E9%9F%B3 儿化音]
 
* Wikipedia: [http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%92%E5%8C%96%E9%9F%B3 儿化音]
 +
* [http://www.beijingputonghua.com/psc/ 普通話水平測試用兒化詞語表 (部分)]
 +
 +
[[Category:Pinyin]]
 +
{{Basic Pronunciation|A2|10|This is the "Beijinger R sound" that gives Mandarin Chinese its pirate flavor!|pinyin|ASP00017}}

Latest revision as of 14:36, 25 February 2016

Also known as: erization, 儿化 (érhuà) and 儿化音 (érhuàyīn).

"Erhua" refers to the addition of a final "-r" sound to a syllable in Mandarin. It is especially common in the Beijing dialect, but is also a feature of standard Chinese as well.

A Few Rules about Erhua

Erhua can be confusing to beginners because it's slightly more complicated than simply adding an "-r" sound to the end of a syllable.

  1. The character 儿 (ér) can be a syllable, as in the two-syllable word 儿子 (érzi), but erhua is not a syllable; it is pronounced as part of the syllable that it comes after
  2. When you add erhua to the end of a syllable ending in -n or -ng, you don't pronounce the -n or -ng (even though you still write it); you pronounce the final -r sound instead
  3. The vowel sound of a syllable may change slightly with the addition of the erhua (e.g. "shi + -r" may sound kind of like "shar")
  4. Erhua can be written as 儿, but it doesn't need to be written to be pronounced (e.g. a southerner will generally pronounce 花 as "huā", but a Beijinger will pronounce it as "huār")

Common Examples of Erhua

  • zhèr here
  • r there
  • r where
  • wánr to play
  • 好玩hǎowánr fun
  • 小孩xiǎoháir child
  • 女孩nǚháir girl
  • 男孩nánháir boy
  • huār flower
  • 一点yīdiǎnr a little as quantifier
  • 有点yǒudiǎnr a little bit as an adverb
  • 一会yīhuǐr, yīhuìr a while; after a while
  • 没事méishìr it's OK; not a problem.
  • 一半yībànr half
  • 小鸟xiǎo niǎor little bird
  • 土豆tǔdòur potato
  • 羊肉串yángròuchuànr mutton skewers
  • 生鱼片shēngyú piānr sashimi
  • xiànr stuffing

Writing Erhua

For a few select words, it is customary to write out the erhua using the character 儿:

  • zhèr here
  • r there
  • r where

Optional Erhua

For many other words, writing the 儿 is optional. Northerners will likely pronounce the following words with erhua, no matter whether it is written with or without the 儿.

  • (儿)huār flower
  • 小鸟(儿)xiǎoniǎor little bird
  • 小孩(儿)xiǎoháir child
  • 好玩(儿)hǎowánr interesting;fun
  • 羊肉串(儿)yángròuchuànr mutton skewers
  • 生鱼片(儿)shēngyú piānr sashimi
  • 没事(儿)méishìr That's ok.
  • 土豆(儿)tǔdòur potato
  • 小偷(儿)xiǎotōur thief
  • 一半(儿)yībànr half
  • 有点(儿)yǒudiǎnr a little bit as an adverb
  • 一点(儿)yīdiǎnr a little as a quantifier

Sources and further reading