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Advanced "le" after an object

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You may have learned that 了 (le) follows immediately after a verb to indicate completion (AKA 了1), and comes at the end of a sentence when it indicates a "change of state" (AKA 了2). But what's the explanation for how it frequently follows not the verb, but the object after the verb? That's what this grammar point is about: bringing a bit more depth to your understanding of expressing completion with "le".

Two Possible Structures

Both of these basic structures are possible (and correct).

Subj. + Verb + 了 + Obj.

Subj. + Verb + Obj. + 了

如果句子成分很少,宾语也极其简单,Verb + 了 + Obj.的语气常常不能自足的。如:

  • 我 上 课 。 I took the class (and I finished it).
  • 老师 问 问题。The teacher asked questions.

The point of this article is to determine when to use one, and when to use the other. Note that there maybe be other words and phrases slipped into the general patterns above.

了 After a Verb with an Object

Verb + 了 + Obj.语气上往往不能自足,但满足以下几种条件时,“了”通常在宾语前,句子的语气才完整。

Specifying the Object

宾语有修饰限定的成分,如数量短语、形容词,或者宾语本身即专有名词。When the Object's Quantity is Specified

Some examples:

  • 他 买 一辆 车 。He bought a car.
  • 妈妈 做 很多 菜 。Mom made many dishes.
  • 我们 吃 印度 菜We ate Indian food.
  • 她 穿 最漂亮 的 裙子 。She wore her most beautiful dress.

Specifying the Time, Place, Purpose, etc.

句中有时间、地点、目的、方式等状语。When Time is Specified

  • 昨天 电影 。I had dinner together with my colleagues.
  • 和 同事 一起 饭 。I had dinner together with my colleagues.
  • 我们 在 动物园 和 熊猫 照 。We took photos with pandas in the zoo.
  • 他 女朋友 为了 他 工作 。His girlfriend quit her job for him.
  • 他们 顺利 地 南极 。They arrived at the South Pole successfully.

Used as An Answer to A Question

在对话中作为答句,因为语境充分,可以成句。

  • A:你 带 电脑 吗?Did you bring your computer?
  • B: 我 带 电脑 。Yes, I've had it.

Completion in the Future

In this case , 了 is often placed after a Verb with an Object. To illustrate that 了 (le) can also indicate that one action is completed before another in the future, see the following examples:

Some examples:

  • 你 到 给 我 打 电话 。future actionAfter you have arrived, call me.
  • 我 下 课 去 找 你 。future actionI will go find you after I finish class.
  • 她 想 毕 业 就 结婚 。future actionShe wants to get married after she graduates.
  • 我 打算 生 孩子 就 回去 工作future actionI plan to get back to work after childbirth.

不需要“了”表完成的情况

不能和“心理动词”连用。

句中有“以前”连用。

“了”不能和“会”连用表示将来完成。

动词只是做某个时间状语的定语时,一般不加“了”。

我刚来了中国的时候,不会说中文。 我上大学了的时候,认识了我女朋友。

Putting 了 After Consecutive Actions

“了”的位置起到标志主要事件的作用。

In a list of consecutive events, the position of 了 serves to signal the purpose of the events.

  • 他 坐 高铁 去 广州 。He took the high speed train and went to Guangzhou.
  • 我 的 一个 男 同事 帮 我 搬 家 。A male coworker helped me move.
  • 老板 请 我们 吃 一 顿 大餐 。My boss invited me to eat a big dinner.
  • 他 站起来 ,走过去 ,打 他 一下 。He stood up and walked to him and hit him.

Usage of Double 了

Emphasizing "big quantity"

如果在句末再加一个“了”,则有两层含义:一是强调或暗示数量多;二是表示“还有可能继续”。

If another 了 is added at the end of the sentence, it indicates two things. One is to emphasize or imply that the number in front of the object is already a big number, and the other is to indicate that this number could continue to grow.

  • 他们 生 四 个 孩子 They've had four children already.
  • 你 吃 五 个 包子 You've eaten five baozi already.
  • 她 一年 换 三 个 工作 She had three different jobs within one year.

Giving a tone of strong confirmation

如果句末再加一个“了”,表示加强肯定语气,因为语气充足,允许宾语极其简单。

If there is another 了 placed at the end of the sentence, it can add a stronger emphasis that the action was completed, in the same way we might say we "did finish the work" instead of just saying we "finished the work."

  • 我 做 作业 ,你 要 检查 吗 ?I did finish my homework. Do you want to check it?
  • 不用 给 我们 盛饭 ,我们 吃 You don't need to serve rice for us. We did eat.
  • 他 问 经理 ,经理 说 行 。He did ask the manager, and he said yes.

Sources and further reading

Books