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Non-exhaustive lists with "dengdeng"

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等等 (děng děng), or simply 等 (děng), is just like saying “and so on” or “etc.” in English, but just a bit more formal. Both are placed after listing a series of items (generally with a list that exceeds two items).

Structure

The basic structure is easy. Just make a list of things, and add 等 (děng) or 等等 (děng děng) to the end of the list. It's the same as in English when we use "etc." at the end of a list.

A1,A2 ⋯⋯ 等 / 等等

Examples

  • 西瓜、菠萝、葡萄 ,等等 ,我 都 喜欢 吃 。 Xīguā, bōluó, pútáo, děngděng, wǒ dōu xǐhuan chī.Watermelons, pineapples, apples, grapes and so on, I like them all.
  • 我 爸爸 很 喜欢 运动 ,比如 跑步、游泳、打羽毛球,等等Wǒ bàba hěn xǐhuan yùndòng, bǐrú pǎobù, yóuyǒng, děngděng.My father likes different sports, for example, running, swimming, playing badminton, etc.
  • Bruce Li、Jackie Chan、Jet Li 都 是 有名 的 功夫 明星 。 Bruce Li, Jackie Chan, Jet Li děng dōu shì yǒumíng de gōngfu míngxīng.Bruce Li, Jackie Chan, Jet Li, etc. are all famous Chinese martial arts stars.
  • 我们 公司 有 市场部、设计部、技术部 ,等等Wǒmen gōngsī yǒu shìchǎng bù, shèjì bù, jìshù bù, děngděng.Our company has marketing department, design department, technology department, etc.
  • 联合国 的 工作 语言 有 英语、法语、西班牙语 Liánhéguó de gōngzuò yǔyán yǒu Yīngyǔ, Fǎyǔ, Xībānyáyǔ děng.The working languages of the UN are English, French, Spanish, etc.

等 (děng) can also be added to the end of a list and is followed by a noun that represents the list. In this case, you can only use 等:

A1,A2 ⋯⋯ 等 + [Category] + Predicate

The predicate part of the pattern can be a verb or an adjective.

  • 长城、故宫 景点 都 是 北京 有名 的 景点 。 Chángchéng, Gùgōng děng jǐngdiǎn dōu shì Běijīng yǒumíng de jǐngdiǎn.The Great Wall, the Forbidden City, etc. are all famous tourist attractions in Beijing.
  • 北京、上海、广州 城市 的 经济 都 很 发达 。Běijīng, Shànghǎi, Guǎngzhōu děng chéngshì de jīngjì dōu hěn fādá.Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and so on are economically developed cities.
  • 牛津、剑桥 大学 是 英国 最 有名 的大学 。Niújīn, Jiànqiáo děng dàxué shì Yīngguó zuì yǒumíng de dàxué.Oxford, Cambridge and so on are the most famous British Universities.
  • 中国、印度、巴西 国家 都 是 发展中 国家 。Zhōngguó, Yìndù, Bāxī děng guójiā dōu shì fāzhǎn zhōng guójiā.China, India, Brazil and so on are all developing countries.
  • 食品安全、环保、和平 话题 都是 热点 话题 。Shípǐn ānquán, huánbǎo, hépíng děng huàtí dōu shì rèdiǎn huàtí.Food safety, environmental protection, peace and so on are all hot topics.

See also

Sources and further reading

Books