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Non-exhaustive lists with "dengdeng"

Chinese-grammar-wiki-deng.jpg

等等 (děng děng) or simply 等 (děng), is just like saying “and so on” or “etc.” in English, but it's just a bit more formal. Both are placed after listing a series of items (generally with a list that exceeds two items).

Structure

The basic structure is easy. Just make a list of things and add 等 (děng) or 等等 (děng děng) to the end of the list. It's the same as in English when we use "etc." at the end of a list, except in Chinese you don't put a final comma before the 等 or 等等.

A1,A2 ⋯⋯ 等 / 等等

Examples

  • 西瓜、菠萝、葡萄 等等 ,我 都 喜欢 吃 。 Xīguā, bōluó, pútao, děngděng, wǒ dōu xǐhuan chī.Watermelons, pineapples, apples, grapes, and so on... I like them all.
  • 我 爸爸 很 喜欢 运动 ,比如 跑步、游泳、打羽毛球 等等Wǒ bàba hěn xǐhuan yùndòng, bǐrú pǎobù, yóuyǒng, dǎ yǔmáoqiú, děngděng.My father likes different sports, for example, running, swimming, playing badminton, etc.
  • Bruce Li、Jackie Chan、Jet Li 都 是 功夫 明星 。 Bruce Li, Jackie Chan, Jet Li děng dōu shì gōngfu míngxīng.Bruce Li, Jackie Chan, Jet Li, etc. are all kung fu stars.
  • 我们 公司 有 市场部、设计部、技术部 等等Wǒmen gōngsī yǒu shìchǎng bù, shèjì bù, jìshù bù děngděng.Our company has a marketing department, design department, technology department, etc.
  • 联合国 的 工作 语言 有 英语、法语、西班牙语 Liánhéguó de gōngzuò yǔyán yǒu Yīngyǔ, Fǎyǔ, Xībānyáyǔ děng.The working languages of the UN are English, French, Spanish, etc.

等 (děng) can also be added to the end of a list and is followed by a noun that represents the list. In this case, you can only use 等:

A1,A2 ⋯⋯ 等 + [Category] + Predicate

The predicate part of the pattern can be a verb or an adjective.

  • 长城、故宫 景点 都 是 北京 有名 的 景点 。 Chángchéng, Gùgōng děng jǐngdiǎn dōu shì Běijīng yǒumíng de jǐngdiǎn.The Great Wall, the Forbidden City, etc. are all famous tourist attractions in Beijing.
  • 北京、上海、广州 城市 的 经济 都 很 发达 。Běijīng, Shànghǎi, Guǎngzhōu děng chéngshì de jīngjì dōu hěn fādá.Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and so on are economically developed cities.
  • 牛津、剑桥 大学 是 英国 最 有名 的大学 。Niújīn, Jiànqiáo děng dàxué shì Yīngguó zuì yǒumíng de dàxué.Oxford, Cambridge and so on are the most famous British universities.
  • 中国、印度、巴西 国家 都 是 发展中 国家 。Zhōngguó, Yìndù, Bāxī děng guójiā dōu shì fāzhǎn zhōng guójiā.China, India, Brazil and so on are all developing countries.
  • 食品 安全、空气 污染、人工 智能 话题 都是 热点 话题 。Shípǐn ānquán, kōngqì wūrǎn, réngōng zhìnéng děng huàtí dōu shì rèdiǎn huàtí.Food safety, air pollution, artificial intelligence, and so on are all hot topics.

See also

Sources and further reading

Books