Expressing "since" with "jiran"
既然 (jìrán) means "since," and is often followed by 就 to mean "since...then...." It is used like this:
既然 followed by an affirmative sentence
This construction is not generally used to express a result, but more of a suggestion or inference deduced from the first fact. It can be placed before or after the subject. But if the subjects in the two clauses are the same, 既然 is more often put after the subject.
既然＋Fact, 那 / 就 / 那就＋Suggestion / Inference
- 你 既然 不 想 说，那就 别 说 了。Since you don't want to speak, just don't say it.a suggestion)
- 既然 你 那么 喜欢，那就 买 吧。 Since you like it so much, buy it then.a suggestion)
- 她 既然 刚刚 分手，那 现在 应该 是 单身 吧。 Since she just had a breakup, she should be single now.an inference)
- 既然 你们 是 好 朋友，那 他 肯定 会 帮 你 吧。Since you guys are good friends, he will definitely help you.an inference)
- 既然 大家 都 不 感 兴趣，就 换 个 话题 吧。Since nobody is interested, let's change the topic.a suggestion)
既然 followed by a question
The suggestion or inference deduced from the first fact can come in the form of rhetorical question. In this case, “那” can be omitted.
既然 + Fact, （那 +）rhetorical question
- 你 既然 不 喜欢 他，为什么 还 想 跟 他 出去？Since you don't like him, why do you want to go out with him?a suggestion)
- 既然 你 已经 决定 了，为什么 现在 后悔？Since you've made your decision, don't regret it then.a suggestion)
- 既然 他 那么 忙，你 为什么 还 去 打扰 他？Since he's so busy, why would you bother him?a suggestion)
- 既然 已经 分手 了，为什么 还 要 见面？Since we broke up, why would we still see each other?a suggestion)
- 既然 你 男朋友 那么 有 钱，那 他 为什么 不 能 大方 一点？Since your boyfriend is so rich, why can't he be more generous?a suggestion)
- Cause and Effect with "yinwei" and "suoyi"
- Because" with "er" Indicating Effect
- Expressing "Even if…" with "jishi"
Sources and further reading
- HSK Standard Course 4下 (pp. 47) 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） →buy
- Chinese Grammar - Broken down into 100 items - Basic and Intermediate Levels (汉语语法百项讲练 - 初中级) (pp. 267-9) 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 2, Part 2 (pp. 289-90) 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 4 (新实用汉语课本4) (pp. 179) 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） →buy
- 卓越汉语－公司实战篇 (pp. 245) 卓越汉语－公司实战篇 →buy