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Alternative existential sentences

Expressing something's existence in a certain place or location is not just limited to 在 (zài) and 有 (yǒu). The word order may be a little different from what you are used to, but 着 (zhe) and 是 (shì) are also ways to make everyday statements such as, "There is a book lying on the desk."

Pattern with 着

Verbs that are paired with 着 are usually stative verbs. So unlike with action verbs, you're going to be describing an action that is kind of like just sitting there. It could be standing there, lying there, sitting there hanging there... the point is it isn't actively expending energy doing anything.

Structure

Place + Verb + 着 + [Noun Phrase]

Examples

  • 桌子 上 放 一 本 书 。Zhuōzi shàng fàng zhe yī běn shū .There is a book on the desk.
  • 大厅 里 站 一些 警察 。Dàtīng lǐ zhàn zhe yīxiē jǐngchá.There are several policemen standing in the hall.
  • 教室 里 坐 两 百 多 个 学生 。Jiàoshì lǐ zuò zhe liǎng bǎi duō gè xuéshēng.There are more than two hundred students sitting in the classroom.
  • 地下室 里 堆 很 多 旧 东西 。Dìxiàshì lǐ duī zhe hěn duō jiù dōngxi.There is lots of old stuff piled up in the basement.
  • 楼下 停 几 辆 车 。Lóuxià tíng zhe jǐ liàng chē.A few cars are parked downstairs.

Note that in English we sometimes use a verb in its "-ing" form, and sometimes use the passive "-ed" form of the verb.

Pattern with 是

The subject in the 是 sentence pattern indicates the location or area. The object that comes after 是 is the only thing (worth mentioning) in that area. It's worth noting that there's no real time indication for most sentences like this. It could be setting a scene in a story (in the past), or it could be describing the current state of things (in the present).

Structure

Place + 是 + [Noun Phrase]

Examples

  • 洗衣机 里 一些 脏 衣服 。There is nothing in the washing machine other than the dirty clothes.Xǐyījī lǐ shì yīxiē zāng yīfu.There are dirty clothes inside the washing machine.
  • 袋子 里 我 的 午饭 。The only thing in the bag is my lunch.Dàizi lǐ shì wǒ de wǔfàn.My lunch is in the bag.
  • 墙 上 都 他 家人 的 照片 。His family's photos are all over the wall, and nothing else is on he wall.Qiáng shàng dōu shì tā jiārén de zhàopiàn.His family's photos are hanging on the wall.
  • 盒子 里 你 的 礼物 。Other than your gift, there is nothing else in the box.Hézi lǐ shì nǐ de lǐwù.Your gift is in the box.
  • 桌子 上 昨天 没 吃完 的 菜 。The food that was left over from yesterday is the only thing on the table.Zhuōzi shàng shì zuótiān méi chī wán de cài.The food that was left over from yesterday is on the table.

Note that 是 is used to describe a singular object existing somewhere, while 有 can refer to multiple objects/people.

See also

Sources and Further Reading

Books