Advanced result complements "zhu", "kai", and "chulai"
Hopefully you're no stranger to the concept of result complements by now, but there are a few that are less common and thus may have escaped direct scrutiny until now. This grammar point focuses on 住, 开, and 出(来) acting as result complements.
住 as a Result Complement
住 can be used after a verb to express a "coming to a halt." These verbs are limited.
- 抓住 那个 小偷 ！Catch that thief!
- 不 好意思 ，你 挡住 了 我 的 路 。Excuse me. You're standing in my way.
住 can also be used to express "undertaking an action firmly."
- 一定 要 记住 我 的 话 。You must remember what I said.
- 你 必须 抓住 机会 。You must seize the opportunity tightly.
- 忍住 ！马上 就 好了 。Hold on! It will be ready soon.
- 坚持 住 ！别 放弃 ！Persevere! Don't give up!
开 as Result Complement
开 means "to open" or "to turn on." It is used as a complement in this literal sense.
- 张开 嘴 。Open your mouth.
- 请 打开 书 。Please open your book.
- 现在 请 你 睁开 眼睛 。Please open your eyes now.
开 can be used to express an action that is occurring in a direction away from the speaker. When used in this sense, 开 is generally used with verbs involving releasing, unfolding or spreading out:
- 走开 ！Go away!
- 放开 我 ！Let go of me!
- 这个 好消息 很快 传开 了 。This good news spread out very soon.
开 can be also used to express solving a problem or getting a weight off one's mind.
- 看开 一点 。Cheer up.
- 想开 一点 。Cheer up.
出(来) as Result Complement
出 and 出来 can be used as complements to figuratively add a sense of "coming into being" or "coming up with."
- 你 能 想出 什么 好 办法 ？What good ideas can you come up with?
- 这些 数学 题 有点 难 ，我 花 了 一个 小时 才 做出来 。These math problems are a little bit difficult. It took me an hour to work them out.
- 你 觉得 他 能 猜 出来 这 件 事 是 我 干 的 吗 ？Do you think he can figure out I am the one who did this?
- 一万 字 的 文章 我 写 不 出来 。I can't write a ten-thousand-word article.
When paired with verbs related to the senses, the complement 出(来) adds a sense of "to tell" or "to distinguish".
- 她 肯定 是 北方人，我 能 听 出来 。She must be from the north. I can hear it.
- 你 能 看出 我 多大 吗 ？Can you tell how old I am?
- 菜 里面 有 味精 ，我 能 吃 出来 。The food has MSG in it. I can taste it.
- 这 个 东西 是 用 什么 做 的 ？你 能 摸 出来 吗 ？What's this thing made of? Can you tell by feeling it?
- 你 抽烟 了 吧 ？别 骗 我 ，我 都 闻 出来 了 。Were you smoking? Don't lie to me because I can smell it.
Sources and further reading