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Using "er" to explain contrasting ideas

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The conjunction (ér) is used to connect two sentences that are related to each other, and is also frequently used to emphasize contrast between two parts of the sentence. In this manner, it can be seen as a word meaning "but rather." 而 is often used in a more formal or literary sense, but is also common in everyday speech.

Start with 是

Frequently you'll see the pattern in one of these two more specific forms involving the verb :

Structure

不是……,而是……

是……,而不是……

Strictly speaking, the 而 isn't required in either of these patterns, but it makes the contrast super clear.

Examples

  • 以后 后悔 的 人 不 是 我, 是 你 自己。The regretful person isn't me. It's you.
  • 现在 要 做 的 不 是 责怪 谁 错 了, 是 怎么 解决。Now is not the time to accuse who did it wrong, but to figure out how to resolve it.
  • 我 没 说 不 是 想 骗 你 ,而 是 怕 你 不 高兴 。The reason I didn't tell you isn't that I wanted to lie to you; it's that I was afraid you would be upset.
  • 不 是 不 想 帮 你 ,而 是 没有 能力 帮 你 。It's not that I don't want to help you, it's that I have no ability to help you.
  • 重要 的 不是 你 的 外表 ,而是 你 的 内心 。What's important is not how you look on the outside, but rather what's on the inside.
  • 生活 中 不是 缺少 美 ,而是 缺少 发现 美 的 眼睛 。It's not that life is lacking in beauty, but rather that we lack eyes that discover it.
  • 我们 来 办事 的 ,不是 来 玩 的 。We're here to do our job, not to have fun.
  • 你 这样 做 害 他 ,不是 帮 他 。By doing this you were hurting him, not helping him.
  • 不好意思 ,我 不 小心 ,不是 故意 的 。I'm sorry. It was an accident. It wasn't on purpose.

Generalized Pattern

Structure

Sentence 1, + 而 + Sentence 2

Examples

  • 我 今天 去 你 家 找 你 了, 你 不 在 家。I am going to your home to find you today, and you are not at home.
  • 孩子 发烧 很 严重, 你 一点 都 不 关心。Your child has a very hot fever,but you must not care.
  • 她 在 公司 很 受 欢迎, 我 并 不 喜欢 她。She is very popular at the company, but I don't like her.

As you can see, 而 comes between the two to heighten the contrast.

See Also

Sources and Further Reading

Books

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