Advanced result complements

住 as Result Complement

住 can be used after a verb to express a "coming to a halt." These verbs are limited.

  • 站住Zhànzhù!Stop!
  • 抓住 那个 小偷 !Zhuā zhù nàgè xiǎotōu!Catch that thief!
  • 不 好意思 ,你 挡住 了 我 的 路 。Bù hǎoyìsi, nǐ dǎngzhù le wǒ de lù.Excuse me. You're standing in my way.

住 can also be used to express "undertaking an action firmly" or "tightly."

  • 一定 要 记住 我 的 话 。Yīdìng yào jì zhù wǒ dehuà.You must remember what I said.
  • 你 必须 抓住 机会 。Nǐ bìxū zhuā zhù jīhuì.You must seize the opportunity tightly.
  • 忍住 !马上 就 好了 。Rěn zhù! Mǎshàng jiù hǎo le.Hold on! It will be ready soon.
  • 坚持 住 !别 放弃 !Jiānchí zhù! Bié fàngqì!Persevere! Don't give up!

开 as Result Complement

开, literally, means "to open" or " to turn on."

  • 张开 嘴 。Zhāng kāi zuǐ.Open your mouth.
  • 打开 书 。Qǐng dǎkāi shū.Please open your book.
  • 现在 请 你 睁开 眼睛 。Xiànzài qǐng nǐ zhēng kāi yǎnjīng.Please open your eyes now.

开 can be used to express an action that is occurring in a direction away from the speaker. When used in this sense, 开 is generally used with verbs involving releasing, unfolding or spreading out:

  • 走开Zǒu kāi!Go away!
  • 放开 我 !Fàng kāi wǒ!Let go of me!
  • 这个 好消息 很快 传开 了 。Zhège hǎo xiāoxī hěn kuài chuán kāi le.This good news spread out very soon.

开 can be also used to express solving a problem or getting a weight off one's mind.

  • 看开 一点 。Kàn kāi yīdiǎn.Cheer up.
  • 想开 一点 。Xiǎng kāi yīdiǎn.Cheer up.

出(来) as Result Complement

出(来) It can be used figuratively to mean "nothing to coming into being" or "to come up with."

  • 你 能 想 出 什么 好 办法 ?Nǐ néng xiǎng chū shénme hǎo bànfǎ?What good ideas can you come up with?
  • 这些 数学 题 有点 难 ,我 花 了 一个 小时 才 做 出来Zhèxiē shùxué tí yǒudiǎn nán, wǒ huā le yīgè xiǎoshí cái zuò chūlái.These math problems are a little bit difficult. It took me an hour to work them out.
  • 你 觉得 他 能 猜 出来 这件事 是 我 干 的 吗 ?Nǐ juédé tā néng cāi chūlái zhè jiàn shì shì wǒ gàn de ma?Do you think he can figure out I am the one who did this?
  • 一万 字 的 文章 我 写 不 出来Yī wàn zì de wénzhāng wǒ xiě bù chūlái.I can't write a ten-thousand-word article.

When paired with expressive verb or verb phrase"出(来)" it's like saying "to tell or to distinguish". 跟感官动词搭配时,"出(来)"表示"to tell or to distinguish".

  • 她 肯定 是 北方人,我 能 听 出来Tā kěndìng shì běifāng rén, wǒ néng tīng chūlái.She must be from the north. I can hear it.
  • 你 能 看出 我 多大 吗 ?Nǐ néng kàn chū wǒ duōdà ma?Can you tell how old I am?
  • 菜 里面 有 味精 ,我 能 吃 出来Cài lǐmiàn yǒu wèijīng, wǒ néng chī chūlái.The food has MSG in it. I can taste it.
  • 这 个 东西 是 用 什么 做 的 ?你 能 摸 出来 吗 ?Zhè gè dōngxī shì yòng shénme zuò de? Nǐ néng mō chūlái ma?What's this thing made of? Can you feel it?
  • 你 抽烟 了 吧 ?别 骗 我 ,我 都 闻 出来 了 。Nǐ chōuyān le ba? Bié piàn wǒ, wǒ dōu wén chūlái le.Were you smoking? Don't lie to me because I can smell it.

上 as Result Complement

考上、住上、开上

See also

Sources and further reading

Books

HSK5