Expressing "again" in the past with "you"
Normally, 又 is used to express an action that has already happened again for (at least) the second time. It doesn't have to be in quick succession; it happened before, and now it's happened again.
(Subj. +) 又 + Verb + 了
- 又 下雨 了 ！It rained again!
- 你 又 迟到 了 。You're late again.
- 宝宝 又 哭 了 。The baby is crying again.
- 我 又 忘 了 。I forgot again.
(Subj. +) 又 + 不 / 没 + Verb
- 他 又 没 来 上课 。He didn't come to class again.
- 你们 又 不 付钱 ？You're not paying again?
- 你 又 不 参加 ？You are not going to participate again?
- 对不起 ，我 又 没 带 书 。Sorry, I forgot to bring the book again.
Colloquial Saying 又来了
又来了 fits the above pattern, but is also a little tricky because it expresses something that is still ongoing, and has already started as the speaker is speaking. Literally it means "here it comes again," but it's more accurate to translate it as "there it is again," or "there [he] goes again." It indicates that the speaker is a bit annoyed that it happened again.
When it becomes clear that something is about to happen again, you can also use 又. It's almost as if it has already happened in your mind. In these cases, it's quite common for 又 to be immediately followed by 是 (shì), 要 (yào), 可以 (kěyǐ), or 能 (néng), and you'll notice that there's often a 了, indicating that something is about to happen.
- 今天 又 要 加班 了 ！We've got to work overtime again today!
- 老板 请客 ，又 可以 吃 大餐 了 ！The boss is going to treat us. We can have a big meal again!
- 快 过年 了 ，我们 又 能 拿 红包 了 ！It's almost Chinese New Year. We can get our red packets [of money] again!
- "Both A and B" with "you"
- Comparing "zai" and "you"
- "Both… and…" with "ji...you"
- Advanced use of "you"
- Emphasizing negation with "you"
- Expressing "again" in the future with "zai"
Sources and further reading
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 2 (3rd ed) (pp. 141-2) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 2, Part 1 (pp. 157) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 2, Part 2 (pp. 288) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 3 (新实用汉语课本3) (pp. 202) →buy
- 现代汉语八百词（增订本） (pp. 633) [ →buy]
- 现代汉语虚词例释 (pp. 588) →buy
- Yale Chinese Usage Dictionary: Using 再 and 又