Expressing "not only... but also"
- Expressing "and also" with "hai" (A2)
- Expressing "except" and "in addition" with "chule… yiwai" (B1)
- Expressing "in addition" with "haiyou" (B1)
- Expressing "in addition" with "lingwai" (B1)
- Expressing "in addition" with "zaishuo" (B1)
- Expressing "not only… but also" with "bujin" (B2)
- Many types of "not only... but also..." (B2)
- Using "er" to explain contrasting ideas (B2)
不但⋯⋯，而且⋯⋯ (bùdàn..., érqiě...) is a very commonly used pattern that indicates "not only, ... but also...."
Used with Single Subject
Subj. + 不但 ⋯⋯ ，而且 ⋯⋯
The same subject should apply to both the first part and the second part (the part after 而且).
The pattern can also be used omitting 而且, and instead using adverbs like 也 and 还 in its place.
- 这个 东西 不但 贵 ，而且 难 买 。This thing is not only expensive, but also hard to buy.
- 这 道 菜 不但 好看 ，也 好吃 。This dish is not only good-looking, but also delicious.
- 她 不但 聪明 ，而且 很 幽默 。She is not only smart, but also very humorous.
- 她 不但 离开 了 我 ，还 拿走 了 我 所有 的 钱 。Not only did she leave me, but she also took all my money.
- 他 不但 提前 做 完 了 ，而且 做 得 很 好 。Not only did he finish it in advance, but he did it very well.
Used with Two Subjects
When there is only one subject with 不但⋯⋯而且⋯⋯, the subject has to come at the beginning of the sentence, before both 不但 and 而且. When using two different subjects, however, you need to put one after 不但 and one after 而且.
不但 + Subj. 1 ⋯⋯ ，而且 + Subj. 2 + 也 ⋯⋯
The pattern can also be used omitting 而且, and instead using adverbs like 也 in its place.
- 不但 大学生 找工作 难 ，而且 研究生 也 不容易 。Not only is it hard to find a job for undergraduates, but it's also hard for graduates.
- 这个 电影 不但 孩子们 喜欢 ，大人 也 很 喜欢 。Not only do children like this movie, but the adults like it.
- 不但 员工 压力 大 ，老板 压力 也 很 大 。Not only are the employees under a lot of pressure, but the boss are under a lot of pressure.
- 老师 发现 ，不但 学生 说谎 ，而且 家长 也 说谎 。The teacher found not only did the student lie, but their parents did.
- 不但 老百姓 害怕 这些 人 ，警察 也 害怕 。Not only do the ordinary people fear these people, but the police fear them.
Sources and further reading
- Common Chinese Patterns 330 (汉语常用格式330例) (pp. 22) →buy
- Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: A Practical Guide (pp. 253) →buy
- New Practical Chinese Reader 2 (新实用汉语课本2) (pp. 219) →buy
- Yale Chinese Usage Dictionary: Usage of 而