- Also known as: 程度补语 (chéngdù bǔyǔ) and complement of degree.
- 1 When to use it
- 2 Basic Pattern
- 3 Descriptive and State Complements
- 4 Degree Complements with Objects
- 5 Degree Complements Following Adjectives
- 6 Compared with Potential Complements
- 7 References
- 8 See also
- 9 Sources and further reading
When to use it
Until now, you may have probably been getting by just fine modifying your verbs with adverbs. You can use 非常 to say "very" and all that. Great. But once you learn to use degree complements, a whole new layer of expressiveness is infused into your language. You will be able to express degree of verbs and adjectives with much more precision and color. But how do you know when to use the degree complement? Here are the main reasons to use it:
- To express how a verb happened or assess its quality
- To express to what extent (or degree) an adjective is true
For the first case, the most typical examples would be describing how well an action is done, or in asking how well an action is done, which are sometimes also classified as descriptive complements and state complements.
- 你们 觉得 我 画 得 怎么样 ？The complement is used to ask "how well I draw."
- 我们 觉得 你 画 得 很 好 。The complement tells us that "I draw very well."
- 他 英语 说 得 怎么样 ？ The complement is used to ask "how well he speaks English."
- 他 英语 说 得 一般 。 The complement tells us that "His English is average."
Instead of using the good old standby adverbs 很 and 非常, we can use all kinds of degree complements to spice up our adjective.
Verb + 得 + [Degree Complement]
- 你 做 得 不错 。You're doing a great job.
- 孩子们 学 得 得 挺 快 的 。The kids are learning fast.
- 我 吃 得 太 饱了 。I'm stuffed.
- 你们 谈 得 顺利 吗 ？Did your conversation go well?
- 她 长 得 还可以 。She is all right looking.
Descriptive and State Complements
Not every aspect of Chinese grammar is agreed upon in the world of academia, and this is the case with degree complements, descriptive complements, and state complements. Some scholars hold that the three are distinct, while others posit they're all just types of degree complements. Still others maintain that degree complements are one, and descriptive complements and state complements are also one.
Here's how a professor of Chinese at Yale puts it:
Generally speaking, the complement of degree is a grammatical unit that describes the main verb of the sentence. Specifically, the complement of degree is an assessment of an action or a description of the consequential state of an action. It may also be a description of the degree of a state.
Okayyy, so it sounds like descriptions and states are all degree complements? That's one of the views on the issue.
None of these classifications truly matters though: the key is understanding them and using complements correctly to express yourself in Chinese. (This is already difficult without adding in unnecessary academic distinctions!)
Degree Complements with Objects
Both adding a complement to a verb with an object and adding an objective to a verb with a complement complicate a sentence in Mandarin, because a single verb cannot be followed by both an object and a complement. In order to get all three pieces of information into a grammatically correct Chinese sentence, there are two approaches to take:
Approach #1: Repeat the Verb
- 你 说 中文 说 得 很 好 。You speak Chinese well. (lit. You speak Chinese speak it well.)
Make sure that the object comes after the first instance of the verb, and the complement after the second.
Approach #2: Move the Object to the Front
- 你 的 中文 说 得 很 好 。You speak Chinese well. (lit. You Chinese speak well.)
Just to be completely clear, the following sentences are both incorrect:
- 你 说 中文 很 好 。
- 你 说 中文 得 很 好 。
A few more examples:
- 你 做 菜 做 得 很 好 。You cook very well.
- 你 的 菜 做 得 很 好 。You cook very well.
- 你 写 字 写 得 很 漂亮 。You handwriting is beautiful.
- 你 的 字 写 得 很 漂亮 。You handwriting is beautiful.
Degree Complements Following Adjectives
There are three especially common degree complements which can follow adjectives immediately and are not preceded by a 得:
- 极了 (like 好), indicating an extremely high degree.
- 死了 usually comes after adjectives with negative connotations (like 忙, 累, 臭, 难看), and are commonly used to exaggerate the degree of how bad something is. In recent years, however, 死了 also comes after adjectives with positive connotations.
- Figuratively, 坏了 is a bit like the complement 死了, and can be used to mean "extremely" in either a positive or a negative sense.
- 味道 好 极了 。The taste is amazing.
- 这里 的 天气 舒服 极了 。The weather here is so comfortable.
- 他 的 袜子 臭 死了 。His socks totally reek.
- 小狗 可爱 死了 。Her baby is so adorable!
- 老师 说 今天 没有 作业 ，我们 都 高兴 坏了 。The teacher said there's no homework for today, which made the students extremely happy.
- 找 不 到 孩子 ，妈妈急 坏了 。Having not found the child, the mother was extremely anxious.
Note that 死 can also act as a result complement. In the examples above, however, it merely indicates an extreme degree (no actual deaths involved!).
Compared with Potential Complements
Some sentences that contain adjective complements may be indistinguishable as degree or potential complements when they are taken out of context. The following table explains different meanings that one complement phrase could have as either a degree or potential.
|Example||Degree Complement Translation||Potential Complement Translation|
|她说得很清楚||"She speaks very clearly."||"She is able to speak very clearly."|
|他做得非常快||"He does it very fast."||"He is able to do it very fast."|
|他们唱得很好||"They sing very well."||"They are able to sing very well."|
Degree complements commonly are directly preceded by an adverb (她说得很清楚) distinguishing them from potential complements which are never directly preceded by an adverb.
- See the article What is the complement of degree? by Ling Mu, Rongzhen Li, and Peisong Xu.
Sources and further reading
- A Practical Chinese Grammar For Foreigners (外国人实用汉语语法) (pp. 284-292) →buy
- Chinese: An Essential Grammar, Second Edition (pp. 105-6) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 2 (3rd ed) (pp. 139) →buy
- 40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册） (pp. 141) →buy