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Reference:40 Lessons for Basic Chinese Course (基础汉语40课上册)

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Grammar Points by Chapter

  1. Lesson One
  2. Lesson Two
  3. Lesson Three
  4. Lesson Four
  5. Lesson Five
  6. Lesson Six
  7. Lesson Seven
  8. Lesson Eight
  9. Lesson Nine
    • 动词谓语句 Sentence with a verbal predicate
    • 名词谓语句 Sentence with a nominal predicate
    • 用“呢”的疑问句 The interrogative sentence ending with 呢
    • 时间状语一般在主语后面,修饰谓语;有时为了强调时间,也可以把它放在主语前面,修饰全句;不可放在句尾;在用“几点”提问时一般不能放在主语前面。 The adverbial of time modifying the predicate generally follows the subject. Sometimes in order to emphasize the time, it can be put before the subject to modify the whole sentence.
  10. Lesson Ten
    • 介词结构 The prepositional phrase
    • “时点”和“时段” Point of time and duration of time
    • 时量补语 The complement of duration
    • “洗澡、睡觉、游泳、跑步、散步、考试、起床”等所谓离合词,实际上具有动词的性质,通常为动宾或动补结构,常作谓语,在本书中都不标注词性。 Words like 洗澡、睡觉、游泳、跑步、散步、考试、起床 and so on, which have a verb-complement structure, are often used as a predicate like a verb. Their syntactical functions will not be mentioned in this text.
  11. Lesson Eleven
  12. Lesson Twelve
  13. Lesson Thirteen
  14. Lesson Fourteen
    • 副词“就” The adverb 就
    • “动词+了+时量”表示动作从开始到完成持续多长时间 "Verb + 了 +duration" indicates the length of time when an action has lasted from the beginning to the end.
  15. Lesson Fifteen
  16. Lesson Sixteen
    • 如果要强调已发生动作的时间、地点、方式等,就用“是…的”,“是”在要强调的部分之前,“的”在句尾;否定式是“不是…的”。 是…的 is used to emphasize the time, place or manner of a completed action. 是 is put before the word to be emphasized and 的 at the end of the sentence.
    • “到”用在动词谓语之后作结果补语,表示人或事物通过动作到达某处、有了结果,或说明动作持续的时间。 As a complement of result, 到 indicates that a person or an object reaches a certain place, achieves a goal or an action continues until a certain time.
    • 动量补语“一下”除了有时表示具体的动量外,常用来表示动作经历的时间短或表示轻松随便。 As a complement of frequency, 一下 means the number of times an action has taken place. Alternatively, it can indicate an action lasting only for a short time.
  17. Lesson Seventeen
  18. Lesson Eighteen
    • 动词“来”和“去”用在动词后作补语,表示趋向。如果动作是向着说话人(或事物)进行的就用“来”;如果是朝着相反的方向进行,就用“去”。 来 and 去 are used after a verb as a complement indicating the direction. If an action proceeds towards the speaker, 来 is used. On the other hand, if an action is away from the speaker, 去 is used.
    • 副词“就”用在动词前,表示事情发生得早、快,或进行得顺利。 The adverb 就 is used before verb indicating an event took place early, quickly, or smoothly. 副词“就”用在动词前,表示事情发生得晚,慢,或进行得不顺利 The adverb "才" is used before a verb indicating an event took place too late, slowly or occurred with difficulty.
    • 助词“了”用在句尾,也可以表示情况的变化 了 is used at the end of a sentence indicating a change of situation.
  19. Lesson Nineteen
  20. Lesson Twenty
    • “除了…以外”表示加合关系,后面常有副词“还、也”或“又”等;“除了…以外”表示排除关系,后面常有副词“都”。 When 除了…以外 means " in addition to", it is often used together with 还,也 or 又. When 除了…以外 means "except", it is often used together with 都。
    • “要…了”表示一个动作或情况很快就要发生,“要”前可以加上“就”或“快”,表示时间紧迫。“就要…了”,“快要…了”也可以省略为“就…了”,“快…了”。 要…了 indicates that an event is about to take place. 要 may be preceded by 就 or 快. 就要…了 and 快要…了 may be simplified as 就…了 and 快…了.
    • 一部分形容词可以重叠,表示性质的程度加深。双音节形容词重叠的方式是“AABB”,作状语时一般要加“地”。 Some adjectives can be duplicated to indicate a high degree. A duplicated form of the disyllabic adjective is AABB. When it is used as an adverbial, 地 is often used after it.