Cause and effect with "yinwei" and "suoyi"
- Expressing "as a result" with "jieguo" (B1)
- Expressing "then…" with "name" (B1)
- Expressing "since" with "jiran" (B2)
- Expressing "therefore" with "yinci" (B2)
- Stating the effect before the cause (B2)
- Using "because" with "er" to indicate effect (B2)
- Express an action and its effect by using "tongguo… shi" (C1)
You will often come across 因为⋯⋯所以⋯⋯ (yīnwèi... suǒyǐ...) in both written and spoken Chinese. This pattern will give your Chinese a clear logical structure, and can help make you more persuasive.
Using 因为 (yīnwèi) by Itself to Explain Causes
A common way to explain causes in Chinese is with 因为 (yīnwèi). This is equivalent to "because" in English. Usually 因为 (yīnwèi) will begin a new phrase in a sentence.
In this structure, we first state the result, and then give the reason in the next statement after the 因为 (yīnwèi).
Result, 因为 + Reason
- 他 学 得 很 快 ，因为 他 很 聪明 。He learns fast because he is smart.
- 我 爱 吃 四川 菜 ，因为 很 辣 。 I love eating Sichuan food because it's very spicy.
- 我 在 学习 中文 ，因为 我 想 去 中国 。I am studying Chinese because I want to go to China.
- 我 不 喜欢 她 ，因为 她 不 友好 。I don't like her because she is very unfriendly.
- 今天 我们 很 忙 ，因为 有 很 多 工作 。 We are very busy today because we have lots of work.
Using 所以 (suǒyǐ) by Itself to Explain Results
Just as 因为 (yīnwèi) can be used to explain causes, 所以 (suǒyǐ) can be used to explain results. This is the equivalent of "so…" or "therefore…" in English.
This pattern is similar to the expression using both 因为 (yīnwèi) and 所以 (suǒyǐ), but it leaves out the beginning 因为 (yīnwèi). This structure is more informal.
Reason, 所以 + Result
- 汉字 太 难 了，所以 我 不 想 学 。Chinese characters are too hard, so I don't want to study them.
- 她 很 漂亮，所以 很 多 男孩 喜欢 她。She is beautiful, so a lot of boys like her.
- 他 找到 工作 了， 所以 很 高兴。He found a job so he's happy.
- 我 太 忙 了，所以 没有 时间 给 你 打 电话。I was too busy, so I didn't have time to give you a call.
- 我们 公司 有 很 多 外国人，所以 我们 要 说 英文。There are a lot of foreigners in our company, so we need to speak English.
Using 因为 (yīnwèi) and 所以 (suǒyǐ) Together
The full pattern 因为……所以…… (yīnwèi... suǒyǐ...) is used to clearly indicate cause and effect. They could be thought of as equating to: "Since ___ happened, so ___ happened." It sounds weird to use both "since" and "so" in one sentence in English, but it makes everything crystal clear in Chinese.
因为 + Cause, 所以 + Effect
This expresses that because of cause, therefore there is a result.
- 因为 我 有 一个 中国 女朋友，所以 我 要 学 中文。Since I have a Chinese girlfriend, I need to study Chinese.
- 因为 他 生病 了，所以 没 去 上课。Since he was sick, he didn't go to class.
- 因为 我 很 累，所以 要 休息。I'm very tired, so I want to rest.
- 因为 太 远 了，所以 我 不 想 去。Since it's too far, I don't want to go.
- 因为 太 忙， 所以 我们 没有 时间 吃 中饭。 We were too busy, so none of us had time to eat lunch.
- Stating the effect before the cause (advanced article)
Sources and further reading
- HSK Standard Course 2 (pp. 44) Anything Goes (无所不谈) →buy
- Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar: A Practical Guide (pp. 272-4) Anything Goes (无所不谈) →buy
- Basic Patterns of Chinese Grammar (pp. 79) Anything Goes (无所不谈) →buy
- Integrated Chinese: Level 1, Part 1 (3rd ed) (pp. 108) Anything Goes (无所不谈) →buy
- 现代汉语虚词例释 (pp. 482) 卓越汉语－公司实战篇 →buy
- Yale Chinese Usage Dictionary: How to use 因为 and 由于