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Expressing earliness with "jiu"

Just as 才 (cái) can express lateness, 就 (jiù) can be used to indicate that something happened earlier or sooner than expected. It can also be used in the near future to indicate something will happen very soon.

就 as "Right Away" (in the Future)

When something happens "right away," you're talking about "very soon" in the future.

Structure

The pattern is as follows:

Subj. + Time Word + 就 + Verb

Examples

  • 我 马上 来 。Wǒ mǎshàng jiù lái.I'll be there in a second.
  • 饭 很 快 好 。Fàn hěn kuài jiù hǎo.Dinner will be ready very soon.
  • 你们 现在 出门 吗 ?Nǐmen xiànzài jiù chūmén ma?Are you leaving the house right now?
  • 他们 一会儿 到 。Tāmen yīhuìr jiù dào.They will be here in a few minutes.
  • 老板 明天 回来 。Lǎobǎn míngtiān jiù huílái.The boss will be back tomorrow.

Note that it can sometimes be hard to translate the feeling of "soonness" into English, but in every one of these examples, the time given in the sentences feels "soon" to the speaker.

就 as "Early" (in the Past)

Structure

The pattern is as follows:

Subj. + Time Word + 就 + Verb + Obj. + 了

Examples

In English this use of 就 might be expressed with "as early as," but usually it's not specifically marked.

  • 我 昨晚 八 点 半 睡觉 了 。Wǒ zuówǎn bā diǎn bàn jiù shuìjiào le.I went to bed at eight thirty last night.
  • 这个 问题 他 十 分钟 解决 了 。Zhège wèntí tā shí fēnzhōng jiù jiějué le.It only took him ten minutes to solve this problem.
  • 这 本 书 你 一 个 晚上 看 完 了 ?Zhè běn shū nǐ yī gè wǎnshang jiù kàn wán le?It only took you just one night to finish reading this book?
  • 她 十八 岁 大学 毕业 了。Tā shíbā suì jiù dàxué bìyè le.She graduated from college when she was only 18 years old.
  • 我们 早上 九点 上课,他 八点 来 了。Wǒmen zǎoshang jiǔ diǎn shàngkè, tā bā diǎn jiù lái le.We have class at nine in the morning, and he came at eight.

From the example sentences it is clear that naturally occurs with a verb used after 就. This is because verbs following 就 generally have the feeling of being completed.

Usage of 早就

早就 means "long ago," and is usually used to express a kind of impatience or surprise on the part of the speaker. It comes before the verb.

  • 早就 知道 了!zǎo jiù zhīdào le!I knew that long ago!
  • 早就 结婚 了。zǎo jiù jiéhūn le.She got married long time ago.
  • 我们 早就 毕业 了。Wǒmen zǎo jiù bìyè le.We graduated a long time ago!
  • 早就 跟 你 说 过,他 不 是 好人。zǎo jiù gēn nǐ shuō guo, tā bù shì hǎo rén.I told you a long time ago that he's not a good guy.
  • 这 家 店 早就 关门 了。Zhè jiā diàn zǎo jiù guānmén le.This shop closed a long time ago.

See also

Sources and further reading

Books

Websites